2010-09-23 03:19:56 8 Comments

While working on a proof showing that all functions limited to the domain of real numbers can be expressed as a sum of their odd and even components, I stumbled into a troublesome roadblock; namely, I had no clue how one divides the function into these even and odd parts.

Looking up a solution for the proof, I found these general formulas for the even and odd parts of a function $f(n)$:

$$\begin{align*} f_e(n)&\overset{\Delta}{=}\frac{f(n)+f(-n)}{2}\\ f_o(n)&\overset{\Delta}{=}\frac{f(n)-f(-n)}{2} \end{align*}$$

While I understand that in an even function $f(n) = f(-n)$ and that in an odd function $f(-n) = -f(n)$, I still don't get how these general formulas for the even and odd parts were obtained. Can someone guide me through the logic?

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## 4 comments

## @Anamika Patel 2017-11-22 10:49:37

f(x)= fe(x)+fo(x).......(1)

The properties of fe(x) and fo(x) are:

fe(-x)= fe(x) And fo(-x)=-fo(x)

Now we have f(-x) = fe(-x) +fo(-x)...(2)

Adding eq (1) and (2) we have fe(x) =( f(x)+f(-x) )/2

Subtracting (1) and (2) we have fo(x) =( f(x)-f(-x) )/2

## @Arnaud D. 2017-11-22 10:57:37

All this was already explained clearly in the accepted answer. I don't think it is necessary to add one.

## @Farhan Qazi 2014-06-21 04:45:18

From intuition:

$$f_e(t) = \frac{f(t)+f(-t)}{2} $$

Division by 2 is performed to normalize.

$$f(t)=f_e(t)+f_o(t) \implies f_o(t)= f(t)-\frac{(f(t) +f(-t))}{2}=\frac{f(t)-f(-t)}{2}.$$

## @Arturo Magidin 2010-09-23 03:32:02

Suppose you could write a function $f(x)$ as the sum of an even and an odd function; call them $E(x)$ and $O(x)$.

In particular, you would have \[f(x) = E(x)+O(x)\] and you would also have \[f(-x) = E(-x) + O(-x) = E(x) - O(x)\] with the latter equation because we are assuming $E$ is even and $O$ is odd, so $E(x)=E(-x)$ and $O(-x) = -O(x)$.

Adding both equations you get $f(x)+f(-x) = 2E(x)$. Subtracting the second equation from the first gives you $f(x)-f(-x)=2O(x)$. Now solve for $E(x)$ and $O(x)$, and you get the formulas you see in the solution. Then you check that the answer does indeed work (that is, you check that the formulas you found do give you an even and an odd function in all cases).

In other words: pretend you already know the answer, and try to deduce conditions that the answer must satisfy (these will be

necessaryconditions); if things go well, you'll get enough information about what theymustbe like to figure outwhatthey are.## @Goldname 2017-01-14 03:39:15

This doesn't make much sense to me. You are basically assuming that f(x) can be divided up into an even function and odd function, then you are finding the even/odd functions in terms of f(x). What does this accomplish, when you are trying to prove that f(x) can be written as an even + odd function?

## @Arturo Magidin 2017-01-14 04:09:54

@Goldname: As I explained six and a half years ago, this gives you necessary conditions that the even and odd functions must satisfy. Having obtained these condition, you may check whether they are also sufficient; that is, you may verify that the given formulas

do,in fact, produce an even and an odd function whose sum is $f$. By explicitly producing these two functions, youprovethat $f$ can be so expressed.Howyou found those functions is irrelevant.## @Goldname 2017-01-14 04:35:43

So you're saying these formulas just give the conditions that the even and odd functions must satisfy, if they exist? You aren't actually proofing that they exist?

## @Arturo Magidin 2017-01-14 04:38:22

I

amproving they exist, because I amexhibitingthem. If you are asked to prove that there exists an integer $x$ such that $x+4=5$, then you can establish its existence byexhibitingthe number $1$ and showing it satisfies the given condition (when you add it to four, you get five).Howdo you find that number is irrelevant for the purposes of demonstrating its existence. In the matter at hand, we are assuming the existence of $E$ and $O$ in order to obtainnecessaryconditions they must satisfy; if such functions exist, then theymustsatisfy that $E(x)=(f(x)+f(-x))/2$ (cont)## @Arturo Magidin 2017-01-14 04:40:17

(cont) and $O(x) = (f(x)-f(-x))/2$. This, by itself, does

notprove that such functions exist. But now, knowing that they must satisfy these conditions, I can say:Letthe function $O$ be defined as $O(x) = (f(x)-f(-x))/2$, and let the function $E$ be defined as $E(x) = (f(x)+f(-x))/2$. Then weprovethat $E(-x)=E(x)$ (so $E$ is even); that $O(-x)=-O(x)$ (so $O$ is odd), and that $f(x)=E(x)+O(x)$, thus proving, byexplicitlyproducing the functions, that $f$ can be written as the sum of an even function and an odd one.## @Jonas Meyer 2010-09-23 03:31:05

Suppose $f(x)=g(x)+h(x)$ with $g$ even and $h$ odd. Then $f(-x)=g(-x)+h(-x)=g(x)-h(x)$. Think of $f(x)=g(x)+h(x)$ and $f(-x)=g(x)-h(x)$ as a system of two equations in two unknowns, $g(x)$ and $h(x)$, to solve for $g$ and $h$.

## @Mana 2010-09-23 04:00:44

Thanks. Yeah, thinking of this as an equation with two unknowns helped me out a lot.