By 23fc9a62-56de-47fb-97b4-737890


2013-12-08 03:08:15 8 Comments

Why are x and y strings instead of ints in the below code?

(Note: in Python 2.x use raw_input(). In Python 3.x use input(). raw_input() was renamed to input() in Python 3.x)

play = True

while play:

    x = input("Enter a number: ")
    y = input("Enter a number: ")

    print(x + y)
    print(x - y)
    print(x * y)
    print(x / y)
    print(x % y)

    if input("Play again? ") == "no":
        play = False

10 comments

@gumboy 2014-07-08 00:13:18

Multiple questions require input for several integers on single line. The best way is to input the whole string of numbers one one line and then split them to integers. Here is a Python 3 version:

a = []
p = input()
p = p.split()      
for i in p:
    a.append(int(i))

@Martijn Pieters 2013-12-08 03:09:10

input() (Python 3) and raw_input() (Python 2) always return strings. Convert the result to integer explicitly with int().

x = int(input("Enter a number: "))
y = int(input("Enter a number: "))

@user1341043 2014-11-11 00:32:38

For multiple integer in a single line, map might be better.

arr = map(int, raw_input().split())

If the number is already known, (like 2 integers), you can use

num1, num2 = map(int, raw_input().split())

@iCodez 2013-12-08 03:09:11

In Python 3.x, raw_input was renamed to input and the Python 2.x input was removed.

This means that, just like raw_input, input in Python 3.x always returns a string object.

To fix the problem, you need to explicitly make those inputs into integers by putting them in int:

x = int(input("Enter a number: "))
y = int(input("Enter a number: "))

@thefourtheye 2013-12-08 03:08:57

TLDR

  • Python 3 doesn't evaluate the data received with input function, but Python 2's input function does (read the next section to understand the implication).
  • Python 2's equivalent of Python 3's input is the raw_input function.

Python 2.x

There were two functions to get user input, called input and raw_input. The difference between them is, raw_input doesn't evaluate the data and returns as it is, in string form. But, input will evaluate whatever you entered and the result of evaluation will be returned. For example,

>>> import sys
>>> sys.version
'2.7.6 (default, Mar 22 2014, 22:59:56) \n[GCC 4.8.2]'
>>> data = input("Enter a number: ")
Enter a number: 5 + 17
>>> data, type(data)
(22, <type 'int'>)

The data 5 + 17 is evaluated and the result is 22. When it evaluates the expression 5 + 17, it detects that you are adding two numbers and so the result will also be of the same int type. So, the type conversion is done for free and 22 is returned as the result of input and stored in data variable. You can think of input as the raw_input composed with an eval call.

>>> data = eval(raw_input("Enter a number: "))
Enter a number: 5 + 17
>>> data, type(data)
(22, <type 'int'>)

Note: you should be careful when you are using input in Python 2.x. I explained why one should be careful when using it, in this answer.

But, raw_input doesn't evaluate the input and returns as it is, as a string.

>>> import sys
>>> sys.version
'2.7.6 (default, Mar 22 2014, 22:59:56) \n[GCC 4.8.2]'
>>> data = raw_input("Enter a number: ")
Enter a number: 5 + 17
>>> data, type(data)
('5 + 17', <type 'str'>)

Python 3.x

Python 3.x's input and Python 2.x's raw_input are similar and raw_input is not available in Python 3.x.

>>> import sys
>>> sys.version
'3.4.0 (default, Apr 11 2014, 13:05:11) \n[GCC 4.8.2]'
>>> data = input("Enter a number: ")
Enter a number: 5 + 17
>>> data, type(data)
('5 + 17', <class 'str'>)

Solution

To answer your question, since Python 3.x doesn't evaluate and convert the data type, you have to explicitly convert to ints, with int, like this

x = int(input("Enter a number: "))
y = int(input("Enter a number: "))

You can accept numbers of any base and convert them directly to base-10 with the int function, like this

>>> data = int(input("Enter a number: "), 8)
Enter a number: 777
>>> data
511
>>> data = int(input("Enter a number: "), 16)
Enter a number: FFFF
>>> data
65535
>>> data = int(input("Enter a number: "), 2)
Enter a number: 10101010101
>>> data
1365

The second parameter tells what is the base of the numbers entered and then internally it understands and converts it. If the entered data is wrong it will throw a ValueError.

>>> data = int(input("Enter a number: "), 2)
Enter a number: 1234
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<input>", line 1, in <module>
ValueError: invalid literal for int() with base 2: '1234'

For values that can have a fractional component, the type would be float rather than int:

x = float(input("Enter a number:"))

Apart from that, your program can be changed a little bit, like this

while True:
    ...
    ...
    if input("Play again? ") == "no":
        break

You can get rid of the play variable by using break and while True.

@Shreyan Mehta 2016-04-09 06:19:24

Is there any other way, like a function or something so that we dont need to convert to int in 3.x other than doing explicit conversion to int??

@thefourtheye 2016-04-09 07:01:32

@ShreyanMehta eval would work, but don't go for that unless you have pressing reasons.

@spectras 2018-04-06 12:48:28

@thefourtheye at least use ast.literal_eval for that. It does not have the security concerns of eval.

@Chris_Rands 2018-07-24 14:36:54

I use this Q&A as a dupe target, but maybe you can add a TDLR with the python 3 solution, i.e. int(input()... at the top? Python 2 is nearing the end of it's life and the python 3 info is too buried IMO

@Sanyal 2015-06-30 09:16:28

def dbz():
    try:
        r = raw_input("Enter number:")
        if r.isdigit():
            i = int(raw_input("Enter divident:"))
            d = int(r)/i
            print "O/p is -:",d
        else:
            print "Not a number"
    except Exception ,e:
        print "Program halted incorrect data entered",type(e)
dbz()

Or 

num = input("Enter Number:")#"input" will accept only numbers

@ravi tanwar 2018-08-03 16:30:31

n=int(input())
for i in range(n):
    n=input()
    n=int(n)
    arr1=list(map(int,input().split()))

the for loop shall run 'n' number of times . the second 'n' is the length of the array. the last statement maps the integers to a list and takes input in space separated form . you can also return the array at the end of for loop.

@Hemanth Savasere 2016-04-17 16:20:24

Convert to integers:

my_number = int(input("enter the number"))

Similarly for floating point numbers:

my_decimalnumber = float(input("enter the number"))

@Tobias Kienzler 2016-11-23 12:19:52

While in your example, int(input(...)) does the trick in any case, python-future's builtins.input is worth consideration since that makes sure your code works for both Python 2 and 3 and disables Python2's default behaviour of input trying to be "clever" about the input data type (builtins.input basically just behaves like raw_input).

@Aravind 2014-05-23 11:32:22

I encountered a problem of taking integer input while solving a problem on CodeChef, where two integers - separated by space - should be read from one line.

While int(input()) is sufficient for a single integer, I did not find a direct way to input two integers. I tried this:

num = input()
num1 = 0
num2 = 0

for i in range(len(num)):
    if num[i] == ' ':
        break

num1 = int(num[:i])
num2 = int(num[i+1:])

Now I use num1 and num2 as integers. Hope this helps.

@23fc9a62-56de-47fb-97b4-737890 2014-05-23 16:33:19

This looks very interesting. However, isn't i destroyed when the for loop is exited?

@Aravind 2014-05-24 15:18:11

@hosch250 When a loop is exited, the value of the index variable (here, i) remains. I tried this piece out, and it works correctly.

@Mathias Ettinger 2018-07-12 12:58:38

For this kind of input manipulation, you can either num1, num2 = map(int, input().split()) if you know how much integers you will encounter or nums = list(map(int, input().split())) if you don't.

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