By Hates_

2008-10-18 23:34:02 8 Comments

I have made some changes to a file which has been committed a few times as part of a group of files, but now want to reset/revert the changes on it back to a previous version.

I have done a git log along with a git diff to find the revision I need, but just have no idea how to get the file back to its former state in the past.


@mjarosie 2019-08-27 14:08:37

As of git v2.23.0 there's a new git restore method which is supposed to assume part of what git checkout was responsible for (even the accepted answer mentions that git checkout is quite confusing). See highlights of changes on github blog.

The default behaviour of this command is to restore the state of a working tree with the content coming from the source parameter (which in your case will be a commit hash).

So based on Greg Hewgill's answer (assuming the commit hash is c5f567) the command would look like this:

git restore --source=c5f567 file1/to/restore file2/to/restore

Or if you want to restore to the content of one commit before c5f567:

git restore --source=c5f567~1 file1/to/restore file2/to/restore

@Aaron Maenpaa 2008-08-29 21:26:35

Amusingly, git checkout foo will not work if the working copy is in a directory named foo; however, both git checkout HEAD foo and git checkout ./foo will:

$ pwd
$ git checkout foo
D   foo
Already on "foo"
$ git checkout ./foo
$ git checkout HEAD foo

@knittl 2010-03-07 16:34:26

or git checkout -- foo

@ireshika piyumalie 2019-02-06 09:30:30

  1. Git revert file to a specific commit

git checkout Last_Stable_commit_Number -- fileName

2.Git revert file to a specific branch

git checkout branchName_Which_Has_stable_Commit fileName

@Jordan 2019-08-07 16:33:04

This was simple and worked great!

@Abhishek Dwivedi 2019-01-24 17:21:50

This is a very simple step. Checkout file to the commit id we want, here one commit id before, and then just git commit amend and we are done.

# git checkout <previous commit_id> <file_name>
# git commit --amend

This is very handy. If we want to bring any file to any prior commit id at the top of commit, we can easily do.

@saber tabatabaee yazdi 2018-08-23 09:53:27

if you commit a wrong file in your last commits follow the instruction :

  1. open source tree, change to this commit

open source tree

  1. change the lines and find your commit that the wrong file sent as commit

enter image description here

  1. you can see the list of your changes in that commit list of files in the source tree
  2. select it and then click on ... buttons right-hand side ... click reverse file
  3. then you can see it on file status tab at the bottom left-hand side then click unstage:

file status tab

  1. open your visual studio code and revert back by committing your removed files
  2. after them all, you can see results in your last commit in the source tree

enter image description here

@Nir M. 2018-05-08 10:26:21

You can do it in 4 steps:

  1. revert the entire commit with the file you want to specifically revert - it will create a new commit on your branch
  2. soft reset that commit - removes the commit and moves the changes to the working area
  3. handpick the files to revert and commit them
  4. drop all other files in your work area

What you need to type in your terminal:

  1. git revert <commit_hash>
  2. git reset HEAD~1
  3. git add <file_i_want_to_revert> && git commit -m 'reverting file'
  4. git checkout .

good luck

@arcee123 2018-10-29 13:22:01

doesn't that revert ALL changes?

@Timothy 2019-02-05 22:01:28

@arcee123 Yes, but the subsequent reset undoes the revert of all changes. The problem is that git-revert only operates on the whole repo, so to compensate we have to undo everything else.

@Timothy 2019-02-05 22:04:03

I recommend using: 1. git revert --no-commit <commit_hash> 2. git reset HEAD This saves an extra commit floating around and does all the changes only in your working directory.

@Daniel Tranca 2019-02-28 16:27:03

@greg-hewgill 's answer is better and spot on. This one is lousy and should not be used.

@Suncat2000 2019-03-21 15:30:51

This is exactly what is needed for a true revert of specific files. I needed to undo changes to a few files from an earlier commit that had already been pushed to the remote repository. I reverted, reset, and committed the result: git revert _oldcommit_ --no-commit git reset -- _unchanged1_ _unchanged2_ ... git commit -m "branch without changes to specific files" The new branch tip reflected all changes except the reverted files.

@Suncat2000 2019-03-21 15:40:40

@DanielTranca Greg Hewgill's answer is not better if you want to revert changes. There may be intervening commits that changed other portions of the files. Nir M.'s answer addresses reverting only what was changed to the specific files in a single commit; his is the better answer to reverting, which I confirmed by arriving at equivalent steps myself.

@Peter V. Mørch 2016-01-07 22:19:45

Many suggestions here, most along the lines of git checkout $revision -- $file. A couple of obscure alternatives:

git show $revision:$file > $file

And also, I use this a lot just to see a particular version temporarily:

git show $revision:$file


git show $revision:$file | vim -R -

(OBS: $file needs to be prefixed with ./ if it is a relative path for git show $revision:$file to work)

And the even more weird:

git archive $revision $file | tar -x0 > $file

@wisbucky 2018-02-16 22:25:00

This is a nice alternative if you're not sure which commit version you want and need to "peek" around without overwriting your working directory.

@Greg Hewgill 2008-10-18 23:39:35

Assuming the hash of the commit you want is c5f567:

git checkout c5f567 -- file1/to/restore file2/to/restore

The git checkout man page gives more information.

If you want to revert to the commit before c5f567, append ~1 (works with any number):

git checkout c5f567~1 -- file1/to/restore file2/to/restore

As a side note, I've always been uncomfortable with this command because it's used for both ordinary things (changing between branches) and unusual, destructive things (discarding changes in the working directory).

@aliteralmind 2014-04-29 12:57:17

@shadowhand: Is there a way to reverse that, so it's the version right after?

@Greg Hewgill 2014-04-29 18:02:22

@aliteralmind: No, unfortunately the Git history shortcut notation only goes backwards in history.

@Ohad Schneider 2014-10-07 15:14:07

If you're going to use a branch name for abcde (e.g. develop) you'll want git checkout develop -- file/to/restore (note the double dash)

@Chris Cogdon 2014-11-19 19:29:52

@aliteralmind: Actually, yes, there's a way to do it: "git log --reverse -1 --ancestry-path yourgitrev..master" and then use the appropriate options to just get the git rev. --ancestry-path will "draw a line" between two commits and -1 will show you just one version, and --reverse will ensure the first entry emitted is the oldest one.

@C Fairweather 2015-03-30 04:46:12

Be sure to checkout the revision hash that still has the file for which you're looking. If it was deleted in a revision, go to the hash at least one earlier than that.

@TheCodeArtist 2015-05-01 01:49:00

To automate the entire process of searching through the history of a file and checking out the appropriate commit-id in one git command, use git prevision.

@Flows 2016-05-27 11:49:26

If you want to delete your changes on this specific file, you can use git checkout path/to/file. If you don't specify a hash, HEAD is used.

@juzzlin 2016-07-01 11:38:02

Personally I find HEAD^ easier to type than HEAD~1 :)

@Saurav Sahu 2017-02-03 14:15:01

Can we pass space-separated file-list right after the commit id?

@Tom Hale 2017-07-28 11:53:28

@juzzlin Or use @^ instead of HEAD^.

@ArielSD 2017-08-23 18:09:56

I also just realized that you have to be on the branch you pushed TO, not from.

@brentlightsey 2017-11-27 20:56:53

The command above worked for me. However, auto-complete suggested a capitalized version of the file, and that produced "FILE1/TO/RESTORE did not match any file(s) known to git." Cases need to match what git has in the repository.

@Eduard 2018-01-14 13:57:00

How can I check 2 or more files?

@Darragh Enright 2018-07-10 12:40:06

I was going to +1 you but clearly I have been here at least once before :D A very useful answer that maybe I should memorise!

@Britton 2018-08-07 02:25:22

The reputation this guy has gained from this answer! Git is awesome

@System.Cats.Lol 2018-08-24 18:57:09

Note for windows users: A relative path was not sufficient, I had to include the full path e.g. /d/Repos/MyRepo/Folder1/Folder2/FileIWantToCheckout.json

@Karl Morrison 2018-12-04 11:30:46

Incorrect answer, this does not REVERT. This only changes the file so the contents are the exact same as the commit you give it, you have to commit again for this to actually be implemented.

@joshden 2019-03-05 23:56:32

Use git checkout 5364aee~1 path/to/dir/* to restore a whole directory of files to their version prior to 5364aee.

@Mark Bolster 2019-04-01 15:21:01

Can anyone explain the sidenote? Why is there a difference between switching between branches and discarding changes in the working directory? Doesn't switching a branch discard changes if the file names match?

@Greg Hewgill 2019-04-01 19:45:38

@MarkBolster: The form of the command shown in the answer uses git checkout -- for restoring specific file contents. Of course, the other completely different use of git checkout is for switching branches. It's unclear to me why somebody chose to use the same command name for two completely different things. (And no, switching branches never discards changes, if you try to do that, git will complain and ask you what you would like to do with the changes that would be overwritten.)

@Tyguy7 2019-06-27 23:05:30

this literally does nothing

@tschoppi 2019-10-07 11:08:01

@GregHewgill git has recently introduced git restore, it is the more appropriate command going forward. You might want to edit that into your answer.

@Greg Hewgill 2019-10-18 08:06:29

@tschoppi: Thanks, I'll do that when the command is no longer marked as "experimental".

@Chris Halcrow 2017-09-26 01:48:14

If you're using Git Extensions and you only want to revert to the parent commit for the file, you can select the commit that contains the changes you want to revert, then select the 'Diff' tab in the details pane, right-click the file you want to revert, then 'Reset file(s) to' ...., then 'A' (the parent)

@Gulshan Maurya 2017-04-04 10:25:08

First Reset Head For Target File

git reset HEAD path_to_file

Second Checkout That File

git checkout -- path_to_file

@fkl 2018-01-19 23:56:20

+1, though not sure of the intent of resetting HEAD. It may or may not be needed. In my situation i only wanted to revert one particular file to the version in repository (which keeping remaining local changes intact. Just running the second step above was sufficient for me

@javaPlease42 2019-05-30 17:07:47

Yes I only need to run the 2nd command. Like -->

@kalmanIsAGameChanger 2017-03-22 21:33:50

For me none of the reply seemed really clear and therefore I would like to add mine which seems super easy.

I have a commit abc1 and after it I have done several (or one modification) to a file file.txt.

Now say that I messed up something in the file file.txt and I want to go back to a previous commit abc1.

1.git checkout file.txt : this will remove local changes, if you don't need them

2.git checkout abc1 file.txt : this will bring your file to your wanted version

3.git commit -m "Restored file.txt to version abc1" : this will commit your reversion.

  1. git push : this will push everything on the remote repository

Between the step 2 and 3 of course you can do git status to understand what is going on. Usually you should see the file.txt already added and that is why there is no need of a git add.

@Jean Paul 2017-11-15 10:58:32

OK so I guess steps 1. and 2. are mutually exclusive: if abc1 is your last commit there is no need for 2. and if there were other commits after abc1 you can directly do 2.

@user3089840 2018-06-21 23:24:59

great answer. this should be #1

@Francis Bacon 2017-03-13 08:10:57

Here is my way.

a) In Android Studio, open the file.

b) git -> Show History, find the previous commit I want to revert to. Get the commit_id (i.e. commit hash).

c) git checkout commit_id file_path

@Uwe Allner 2017-03-13 08:33:07

Your way is exactly the way of the accepted answer.

@Vince 2016-12-07 14:43:49

Many answers here claims to use git reset ... <file> or git checkout ... <file> but by doing so, you will loose every modifications on <file> committed after the commit you want to revert.

If you want to revert changes from one commit on a single file only, just as git revert would do but only for one file (or say a subset of the commit files), I suggest to use both git diff and git apply like that (with <sha> = the hash of the commit you want to revert) :

git diff <sha>^ <sha> path/to/file.ext | git apply -R

Basically, it will first generate a patch corresponding to the changes you want to revert, and then reverse-apply the patch to drop those changes.

Of course, it shall not work if reverted lines had been modified by any commit between <sha1> and HEAD (conflict).

@Amaury D 2019-09-19 13:49:10

That should be the approved answer. May I suggest a slightly simplified version: git show -p <sha> path/to/file.ext|git apply -R

@cambunctious 2019-12-10 20:57:13

you can use <sha>^! instead of <sha>^ <sha>

@TheCodeArtist 2015-05-01 01:46:58

git-aliases, awk and shell-functions to the rescue!

git prevision <N> <filename>

where <N> is the number of revisions of the file to rollback for file <filename>.
For example, to checkout the immediate previous revision of a single file x/y/z.c, run

git prevision -1 x/y/z.c

How git prevision works?

Add the following to your gitconfig

        prevision = "!f() { git checkout `git log --oneline $2 |  awk -v commit="$1" 'FNR == -commit+1 {print $1}'` $2;} ;f"

The command basically

  • performs a git log on the specified file and
  • picks the appropriate commit-id in the history of the file and
  • executes a git checkout to the commit-id for the specified file.

Essentially, all that one would manually do in this situation,
wrapped-up in one beautiful, efficient git-alias - git-prevision

@foxxtrot 2009-04-07 21:48:35

You can use any reference to a git commit, including the SHA-1 if that's most convenient. The point is that the command looks like this:

git checkout [commit-ref] -- [filename]

@2rs2ts 2014-10-09 00:20:29

What is the difference between this answer, which has --, and the accepted one which does not?

@foxxtrot 2014-10-09 14:32:00

In git, a ' -- ' before the file list tells git that all the next arguments should be interpreted as filenames, not as branch-names or anything else. It's a helpful disambiguator sometimes.

@Hawkeye Parker 2015-02-06 05:49:24

The '--' is not only a git convention, but something you find in various places in on the *nix commandline. rm -- -f (remove a file named -f) seems to be the canonical example. More detail here

@Devy 2015-07-14 18:11:41

Just add to what @HawkeyeParker said, rm command uses getopt(3) to parse its arguments. getopt is the command to parse command arguments.

@Honey 2017-04-04 21:50:49

@HawkeyeParker you mean the filename is -f?! I'm assuming that's a very rare case right?

@Honey 2017-04-04 21:55:16

@foxxtrot You said -- should be interpreted as files but after seeing Greg Hewgill 2nd answer below I'm confused.he suggests git checkout -- foo <-- In his example is foo a filename? or it's just something tree-ish? I mean you can't checkout to a fileName! It's meaningless

@Hawkeye Parker 2017-04-05 20:35:50

@Honey Yes, that's what I mean, and yeah, probably not common at all. I've seen that example in various places, maybe just to make it sortof memorable: rm -f is well-known to be scary/dangerous. But, the point is, in *nix a file name can start with a '-', and this will confuse various commandline interpreters which, when they see a '-', expect a command option to follow. It could be any file starting with '-'; e.g., "-mySpecialFile".

@Hawkeye Parker 2017-04-07 01:00:21

@cmcginty 2009-02-24 09:43:49

Here's how rebase works:

git checkout <my branch>
git rebase master
git checkout master
git merge <my branch>

Assume you have

---o----o----o----o  master
    \---A----B       <my branch>

The first two commands ... commit git checkout git rebase master

... check out the branch of changes you want to apply to the master branch. The rebase command takes the commits from <my branch> (that are not found in master) and reapplies them to the head of master. In other words, the parent of the first commit in <my branch> is no longer a previous commit in the master history, but the current head of master. The two commands are the same as:

git rebase master <my branch>

It might be easier to remember this command as both the "base" and "modify" branches are explicit.

. The final history result is:

---o----o----o----o   master
                   \----A'----B'  <my branch>

The final two commands ...

git checkout master
git merge <my branch>

... do a fast-forward merge to apply all <my branch> changes onto master. Without this step, the rebase commit does not get added to master. The final result is:

---o----o----o----o----A'----B'  master, <my branch>

master and <my branch> both reference B'. Also, from this point it is safe to delete the <my branch> reference.

git branch -d <my branch>

@Damien Diederen 2008-08-31 11:54:16

Note, however, that git checkout ./foo and git checkout HEAD ./foo are not exactly the same thing; case in point:

$ echo A > foo
$ git add foo
$ git commit -m 'A' foo
Created commit a1f085f: A
1 files changed, 1 insertions(+), 0 deletions(-)
create mode 100644 foo
$ echo B >> foo
$ git add foo
$ echo C >> foo
$ cat foo
$ git checkout ./foo
$ cat foo
$ git checkout HEAD ./foo
$ cat foo

(The second add stages the file in the index, but it does not get committed.)

Git checkout ./foo means revert path ./foo from the index; adding HEAD instructs Git to revert that path in the index to its HEAD revision before doing so.

@shah1988 2014-02-25 14:01:20

In order to go to a previous commit version of the file, get the commit number, say eb917a1 then

git checkout eb917a1 YourFileName

If you just need to go back to the last commited version

git reset HEAD YourFileName
git checkout YourFileName

This will simply take you to the last committed state of the file

@ModernIncantations 2014-01-11 00:29:50

In the case that you want to revert a file to a previous commit (and the file you want to revert already committed) you can use

git checkout HEAD^1 path/to/file


git checkout HEAD~1 path/to/file

Then just stage and commit the "new" version.

Armed with the knowledge that a commit can have two parents in the case of a merge, you should know that HEAD^1 is the first parent and HEAD~1 is the second parent.

Either will work if there is only one parent in the tree.

@Aristotle Pagaltzis 2008-10-19 00:16:01

I have to plug EasyGit here, which is a wrapper to make git more approachable to novices without confusing seasoned users. One of the things it does is give more meanings to git revert. In this case, you would simply say:

eg revert foo/bar foo/baz

@koppor 2016-12-02 07:13:17

It should be eg revert --in REVISON -- FILENAME. The --in is important. For the Windows users out there: Open git bash. Execute echo %PATH. The first path should be in your user directory ending with bin. Create that path. Store eg there. Name it eg. Not eg.txt.

@Amos Folarin 2013-09-26 17:04:32

git checkout ref|commitHash -- filePath


git checkout HEAD~5 --
git checkout 048ee28 --

@Greg Hewgill 2008-08-29 20:56:12

git checkout -- foo

That will reset foo to HEAD. You can also:

git checkout HEAD^ foo

for one revision back, etc.

@Mikko Rantalainen 2013-03-18 07:22:58

I'd suggest using syntax git checkout -- foo to avoid any mistakes if foo is anything special (like a directory or a file called -f). With git, if you're unsure, always prefix all files and directories with the special argument --.

@matthaeus 2016-03-04 13:04:33

An additional note to Mikko's comment: -- is not a git command and not special to git. It is a bash built-in to signify the end of command options. You can use it with many other bash commands too.

@Greg Hewgill 2016-03-04 17:47:19

@matthaeus it's also neither specific to bash nor a shell feature at all. It's a convention implemented in many different commands (and supported by getopt).

@Emil Lundberg 2019-09-01 14:20:16

No, -- is not a builtin special word in bash. But it is a common convention supported by many commandline parsers and used by many CLIs, including git.

@mustafakyr 2011-12-05 20:09:51

Use git log to obtain the hash key for specific version and then use git checkout <hashkey>

Note: Do not forget to type the hash before the last one. Last hash points your current position (HEAD) and changes nothing.

@Ron DeVera 2009-04-07 14:03:18

If you know how many commits you need to go back, you can use:

git checkout master~5 image.png

This assumes that you're on the master branch, and the version you want is 5 commits back.

@CDR 2012-01-14 06:15:35

And to revert to last committed version, which is most frequently needed, you can use this simpler command.

git checkout HEAD file/to/restore

@Motti Shneor 2016-01-26 13:23:26

what is the difference between this (git checkout HEAD file/to/restore) and git reset --hard file/to/restore ???

@Roman Susi 2017-01-10 19:03:07

1) easier to remember more general way 2) no worries to press Enter before entering file name

@Ian Davis 2011-12-16 03:03:25

Obviously someone either needs to write an intelligible book on git, or git needs to be better explained in the documentation. Faced with this same problem I guessed that

cd <working copy>
git revert master

would undo the last commit which is seemed to do.


@jdee 2008-12-17 06:53:25

I think I've found it....from

Sometimes you just want to go back and forget about every change past a certain point because they're all wrong.

Start with:

$ git log

which shows you a list of recent commits, and their SHA1 hashes.

Next, type:

$ git reset --hard SHA1_HASH

to restore the state to a given commit and erase all newer commits from the record permanently.

@Bombe 2008-12-17 09:15:21

Git never removes anything. Your old commits are still there but unless there is a branch tip pointing at them they are not reachable anymore. git reflog will still show them until you clean your repository with git-gc.

@Winston C. Yang 2010-05-19 14:53:18

@Bombe: Thank you for the information. I had checked out an old version of a file. After reading your comment, I was able to use "gitref" to lookup the partial SHA1 hash, and use "checkout" to get back to the most recent version. Other git users might find this information helpful.

@bshirley 2012-04-18 21:47:55

possibly followed by a git push --force

@aerobiotic 2012-04-23 18:28:40

If after the above "git reset --hard SHA1_HASH", you do a "git status" and see Untracked files, and you want to get rid of them too. Run "git clean --force -d"

@Boklucius 2012-04-24 15:30:55

If you have uncommitted changes, you will loose them if do a git reset --hard

@hellatan 2012-05-02 14:18:09

i found this article that helped me get passed this issue:… it seemed to work great and is very similar to this particular answer.

@aidan 2014-01-07 23:50:33

Doesn't this reset ALL files? Not just a specific file?

@Bulwersator 2014-04-29 07:07:42

@Bombe - "Git never removes anything. Your old commits are still there but unless there is a branch tip pointing at them they are not reachable anymore." - but commits like this are pruned after some set time, so "Git never removes anything" is untrue.

@Nick Volynkin 2016-06-26 05:33:35

@Bombe: git reflog will still show them until you clean your repository with git-gc – wrong. Reflog is a reference too and referenced commits will never be removed by git-gc. If you need to clean them right now, you have to do git reflog expire --expire-unreachable=now --all

@Rory O'Kane 2017-06-19 20:07:22

@NickVolynkin Your information is wrong; git gc will sometimes remove commits from the reflog. As the git-gc man page says, the configuration variables gc.reflogExpire and gc.reflogExpireUnreachable set age thresholds for deletion from the reflog. Entries older than those values will be deleted when git gc is run. The values default to 90 days and 30 days for reachable and unreachable commits.

@v2k 2011-08-25 22:12:22

This worked for me:

git checkout <commit hash> file

Then commit the change:

git commit -a

@bbrown 2009-05-27 17:52:22

I had the same issue just now and I found this answer easiest to understand (commit-ref is the SHA value of the change in the log you want to go back to):

git checkout [commit-ref] [filename]

This will put that old version in your working directory and from there you can commit it if you want.

@gitster 2009-01-11 08:13:39

You have to be careful when you say "rollback". If you used to have one version of a file in commit $A, and then later made two changes in two separate commits $B and $C (so what you are seeing is the third iteration of the file), and if you say "I want to roll back to the first one", do you really mean it?

If you want to get rid of the changes both the second and the third iteration, it is very simple:

$ git checkout $A file

and then you commit the result. The command asks "I want to check out the file from the state recorded by the commit $A".

On the other hand, what you meant is to get rid of the change the second iteration (i.e. commit $B) brought in, while keeping what commit $C did to the file, you would want to revert $B

$ git revert $B

Note that whoever created commit $B may not have been very disciplined and may have committed totally unrelated change in the same commit, and this revert may touch files other than file you see offending changes, so you may want to check the result carefully after doing so.

@Frederick Ollinger 2018-06-08 18:35:11

I did this, but then a "git log file" would say that I was on the original commit, HEAD. It seemed that "git checkout" was failing. However, a git status showed that the file was actually changed and and a "git diff --staged file" would show the actual changes. Also, a "git status" showed the file changed as well. So don't use "git log" here to track which files changed.

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