By Sara Canducci


2014-10-03 14:25:22 8 Comments

I'm trying to figure this out since last week without going any step further. Ok, so I need to apply some constraints programmatically in Swift to a UIView using this code:

var new_view:UIView! = UIView(frame: CGRectMake(0, 0, 100, 100));
new_view.backgroundColor = UIColor.redColor();
view.addSubview(new_view);

var constX:NSLayoutConstraint = NSLayoutConstraint(item: new_view, attribute: NSLayoutAttribute.CenterX, relatedBy: NSLayoutRelation.Equal, toItem: self.view, attribute: NSLayoutAttribute.CenterX, multiplier: 1, constant: 0);
self.view.addConstraint(constX);

var constY:NSLayoutConstraint = NSLayoutConstraint(item: new_view, attribute: NSLayoutAttribute.CenterY, relatedBy: NSLayoutRelation.Equal, toItem: self.view, attribute: NSLayoutAttribute.CenterY, multiplier: 1, constant: 0);
self.view.addConstraint(constY);

var constW:NSLayoutConstraint = NSLayoutConstraint(item: new_view, attribute: NSLayoutAttribute.Width, relatedBy: NSLayoutRelation.Equal, toItem: new_view, attribute: NSLayoutAttribute.Width, multiplier: 1, constant: 0);
self.view.addConstraint(constW);

var constH:NSLayoutConstraint = NSLayoutConstraint(item: new_view, attribute: NSLayoutAttribute.Height, relatedBy: NSLayoutRelation.Equal, toItem: new_view, attribute: NSLayoutAttribute.Height, multiplier: 1, constant: 0);
self.view.addConstraint(constH);

But Xcode returns this weird output:

2014-10-03 09:48:12.657 Test[35088:2454916] Unable to simultaneously satisfy constraints.  Probably at least one of the constraints in the following list is one you don't want. Try this: (1) look at each constraint and try to figure out which you don't expect; (2) find the code that added the unwanted constraint or constraints and fix it. (Note: If you're seeing NSAutoresizingMaskLayoutConstraints that you don't understand, refer to the documentation for the UIView property translatesAutoresizingMaskIntoConstraints) 
(
"<NSLayoutConstraint:0x7fa4ea446830 UIView:0x7fa4ea429290.centerX == UIView:0x7fa4ea4470f0.centerX>",
"<NSAutoresizingMaskLayoutConstraint:0x7fa4ea4516c0 h=--& v=--& UIView:0x7fa4ea429290.midX == + 50>",
"<NSLayoutConstraint:0x7fa4ea452830 'UIView-Encapsulated-Layout-Width' H:[UIView:0x7fa4ea4470f0(375)]>",
"<NSAutoresizingMaskLayoutConstraint:0x7fa4ea446db0 h=-&- v=-&- 'UIView-Encapsulated-Layout-Left' H:|-(0)-[UIView:0x7fa4ea4470f0]   (Names: '|':UIWindow:0x7fa4ea444b20 )>"
)

Will attempt to recover by breaking constraint <NSLayoutConstraint:0x7fa4ea446830 UIView:0x7fa4ea429290.centerX == UIView:0x7fa4ea4470f0.centerX>

Make a symbolic breakpoint at UIViewAlertForUnsatisfiableConstraints to catch this in the debugger. The methods in the UIConstraintBasedLayoutDebugging category on UIView listed in
<UIKit/UIView.h> may also be helpful.

2014-10-03 09:48:12.658 Test[35088:2454916] Unable to simultaneously satisfy constraints.  Probably at least one of the constraints in the following list is one you don't want. Try this: (1) look at each constraint and try to figure out which you don't expect; (2) find the code that added the unwanted constraint or constraints and fix it. (Note: If you're seeing NSAutoresizingMaskLayoutConstraints that you don't understand, refer to the documentation for the UIView property translatesAutoresizingMaskIntoConstraints)
(
"<NSLayoutConstraint:0x7fa4ea44d160 UIView:0x7fa4ea429290.centerY == UIView:0x7fa4ea4470f0.centerY>",
"<NSAutoresizingMaskLayoutConstraint:0x7fa4ea451b30 h=--& v=--& UIView:0x7fa4ea429290.midY == + 50>",
"<NSLayoutConstraint:0x7fa4ea44cf00 'UIView-Encapsulated-Layout-Height' V:[UIView:0x7fa4ea4470f0(667)]>",
"<NSAutoresizingMaskLayoutConstraint:0x7fa4ea452700 h=-&- v=-&- 'UIView-Encapsulated-Layout-Top' V:|-(0)-[UIView:0x7fa4ea4470f0]  (Names: '|':UIWindow:0x7fa4ea444b20 )>"
)

Will attempt to recover by breaking constraint <NSLayoutConstraint:0x7fa4ea44d160 UIView:0x7fa4ea429290.centerY == UIView:0x7fa4ea4470f0.centerY>

Make a symbolic breakpoint at UIViewAlertForUnsatisfiableConstraints to catch this in the debugger. The methods in the UIConstraintBasedLayoutDebugging category on UIView listed in <UIKit/UIView.h> may also be helpful.

Can you help me? Thanks a lot

14 comments

@Avinash Reddy 2018-11-10 12:37:47

Basically it involved 3 steps

fileprivate func setupName() { 

    lblName.text = "Hello world"

    // Step 1
    lblName.translatesAutoresizingMaskIntoConstraints = false

    //Step 2
    self.view.addSubview(lblName)

    //Step 3
    NSLayoutConstraint.activate([
        lblName.centerXAnchor.constraint(equalTo: self.view.centerXAnchor),
        lblName.centerYAnchor.constraint(equalTo: self.view.centerYAnchor)
    ])
}

This puts label "hello world" in center of screen.

Please refer link Autolayout constraints programmatically

@wali naqvi 2018-12-02 06:09:52

Would like to add some theoretical concept to Imanou Petit’s answer, so that one can understand how auto layout works.

To understand auto layout consider your view as rubber's object which is shrinked initially.

To place an object on screen we need 4 mandatory things :

  • X coordinate of object (horizontal position).

  • Y coordinate of object (vertical position )

  • Object’s Width

  • Object’s Height.

1 X coordinate: There are multiple ways of giving x coordinates to a view.

Such as Leading constraint, Trailing constraint , Horizontally centre etc.

2 Y coordinate: There are multiple ways of giving y coordinates to a view :

Such as Top constraint, Bottom constraint , Vertical centre etc.

3 Object's width: There are two ways of giving width constrain to a view :

a. Add fixed width constraint (consider this constraint as iron rod of fixed width and you have hooked your rubber’s object horizontally with it so rubber’s object don’t shrink or expand)

b. Do not add any width constraint but add x coordinate constraint to both end of view trailing and leading, these two constraints will expand/shrink your rubber’s object by pulling/pushing it from both end, leading and trailing.

4 Object's height: Similar to width, there are two ways of giving height constraint to a view as well :

a. Add fixed height constraint (consider this constraints as iron rod of fixed height and you have hooked your rubber’s object vertically with it so rubber’s object don’t shrink or expand)

b. Do not add any height constraint but add x coordinate constraint to both end of view top and bottom, these two constraints will expand/shrink your rubber’s object pulling/pushing it from both end, top and bottom.

@Imanou Petit 2014-10-03 15:27:12

Do you plan to have a squared UIView of width: 100 and Height: 100 centered inside the UIView of an UIViewController? If so, you may try one of the 6 following Auto Layout styles (Swift 4.2 / iOS 12):


1. Using NSLayoutConstraint initializer

override func viewDidLoad() {
    let newView = UIView()
    newView.backgroundColor = UIColor.red
    view.addSubview(newView)

    newView.translatesAutoresizingMaskIntoConstraints = false
    let horizontalConstraint = NSLayoutConstraint(item: newView, attribute: NSLayoutConstraint.Attribute.centerX, relatedBy: NSLayoutConstraint.Relation.equal, toItem: view, attribute: NSLayoutConstraint.Attribute.centerX, multiplier: 1, constant: 0)
    let verticalConstraint = NSLayoutConstraint(item: newView, attribute: NSLayoutConstraint.Attribute.centerY, relatedBy: NSLayoutConstraint.Relation.equal, toItem: view, attribute: NSLayoutConstraint.Attribute.centerY, multiplier: 1, constant: 0)
    let widthConstraint = NSLayoutConstraint(item: newView, attribute: NSLayoutConstraint.Attribute.width, relatedBy: NSLayoutConstraint.Relation.equal, toItem: nil, attribute: NSLayoutConstraint.Attribute.notAnAttribute, multiplier: 1, constant: 100)
    let heightConstraint = NSLayoutConstraint(item: newView, attribute: NSLayoutConstraint.Attribute.height, relatedBy: NSLayoutConstraint.Relation.equal, toItem: nil, attribute: NSLayoutConstraint.Attribute.notAnAttribute, multiplier: 1, constant: 100)
    view.addConstraints([horizontalConstraint, verticalConstraint, widthConstraint, heightConstraint])
}
override func viewDidLoad() {
    let newView = UIView()
    newView.backgroundColor = UIColor.red
    view.addSubview(newView)

    newView.translatesAutoresizingMaskIntoConstraints = false
    let horizontalConstraint = NSLayoutConstraint(item: newView, attribute: NSLayoutConstraint.Attribute.centerX, relatedBy: NSLayoutConstraint.Relation.equal, toItem: view, attribute: NSLayoutConstraint.Attribute.centerX, multiplier: 1, constant: 0)
    let verticalConstraint = NSLayoutConstraint(item: newView, attribute: NSLayoutConstraint.Attribute.centerY, relatedBy: NSLayoutConstraint.Relation.equal, toItem: view, attribute: NSLayoutConstraint.Attribute.centerY, multiplier: 1, constant: 0)
    let widthConstraint = NSLayoutConstraint(item: newView, attribute: NSLayoutConstraint.Attribute.width, relatedBy: NSLayoutConstraint.Relation.equal, toItem: nil, attribute: NSLayoutConstraint.Attribute.notAnAttribute, multiplier: 1, constant: 100)
    let heightConstraint = NSLayoutConstraint(item: newView, attribute: NSLayoutConstraint.Attribute.height, relatedBy: NSLayoutConstraint.Relation.equal, toItem: nil, attribute: NSLayoutConstraint.Attribute.notAnAttribute, multiplier: 1, constant: 100)
    NSLayoutConstraint.activate([horizontalConstraint, verticalConstraint, widthConstraint, heightConstraint])
}
override func viewDidLoad() {
    let newView = UIView()
    newView.backgroundColor = UIColor.red
    view.addSubview(newView)

    newView.translatesAutoresizingMaskIntoConstraints = false
    NSLayoutConstraint(item: newView, attribute: NSLayoutConstraint.Attribute.centerX, relatedBy: NSLayoutConstraint.Relation.equal, toItem: view, attribute: NSLayoutConstraint.Attribute.centerX, multiplier: 1, constant: 0).isActive = true
    NSLayoutConstraint(item: newView, attribute: NSLayoutConstraint.Attribute.centerY, relatedBy: NSLayoutConstraint.Relation.equal, toItem: view, attribute: NSLayoutConstraint.Attribute.centerY, multiplier: 1, constant: 0).isActive = true
    NSLayoutConstraint(item: newView, attribute: NSLayoutConstraint.Attribute.width, relatedBy: NSLayoutConstraint.Relation.equal, toItem: nil, attribute: NSLayoutConstraint.Attribute.notAnAttribute, multiplier: 1, constant: 100).isActive = true
    NSLayoutConstraint(item: newView, attribute: NSLayoutConstraint.Attribute.height, relatedBy: NSLayoutConstraint.Relation.equal, toItem: nil, attribute: NSLayoutConstraint.Attribute.notAnAttribute, multiplier: 1, constant: 100).isActive = true
}

2. Using Visual Format Language

override func viewDidLoad() {
    let newView = UIView()
    newView.backgroundColor = UIColor.red
    view.addSubview(newView)

    newView.translatesAutoresizingMaskIntoConstraints = false
    let views = ["view": view!, "newView": newView]
    let horizontalConstraints = NSLayoutConstraint.constraints(withVisualFormat: "H:[view]-(<=0)-[newView(100)]", options: NSLayoutConstraint.FormatOptions.alignAllCenterY, metrics: nil, views: views)
    let verticalConstraints = NSLayoutConstraint.constraints(withVisualFormat: "V:[view]-(<=0)-[newView(100)]", options: NSLayoutConstraint.FormatOptions.alignAllCenterX, metrics: nil, views: views)
    view.addConstraints(horizontalConstraints)
    view.addConstraints(verticalConstraints)
}
override func viewDidLoad() {
    let newView = UIView()
    newView.backgroundColor = UIColor.red
    view.addSubview(newView)

    newView.translatesAutoresizingMaskIntoConstraints = false
    let views = ["view": view!, "newView": newView]
    let horizontalConstraints = NSLayoutConstraint.constraints(withVisualFormat: "H:[view]-(<=0)-[newView(100)]", options: NSLayoutConstraint.FormatOptions.alignAllCenterY, metrics: nil, views: views)
    let verticalConstraints = NSLayoutConstraint.constraints(withVisualFormat: "V:[view]-(<=0)-[newView(100)]", options: NSLayoutConstraint.FormatOptions.alignAllCenterX, metrics: nil, views: views)
    NSLayoutConstraint.activate(horizontalConstraints)
    NSLayoutConstraint.activate(verticalConstraints)
}

3. Using a mix of NSLayoutConstraint initializer and Visual Format Language

override func viewDidLoad() {
    let newView = UIView()
    newView.backgroundColor = UIColor.red
    view.addSubview(newView)

    newView.translatesAutoresizingMaskIntoConstraints = false
    let views = ["newView": newView]
    let widthConstraints = NSLayoutConstraint.constraints(withVisualFormat: "H:[newView(100)]", options: NSLayoutConstraint.FormatOptions(rawValue: 0), metrics: nil, views: views)
    let heightConstraints = NSLayoutConstraint.constraints(withVisualFormat: "V:[newView(100)]", options: NSLayoutConstraint.FormatOptions(rawValue: 0), metrics: nil, views: views)
    let horizontalConstraint = NSLayoutConstraint(item: newView, attribute: NSLayoutConstraint.Attribute.centerX, relatedBy: NSLayoutConstraint.Relation.equal, toItem: view, attribute: NSLayoutConstraint.Attribute.centerX, multiplier: 1, constant: 0)
    let verticalConstraint = NSLayoutConstraint(item: newView, attribute: NSLayoutConstraint.Attribute.centerY, relatedBy: NSLayoutConstraint.Relation.equal, toItem: view, attribute: NSLayoutConstraint.Attribute.centerY, multiplier: 1, constant: 0)
    view.addConstraints(widthConstraints)
    view.addConstraints(heightConstraints)
    view.addConstraints([horizontalConstraint, verticalConstraint])
}
override func viewDidLoad() {
    let newView = UIView()
    newView.backgroundColor = UIColor.red
    view.addSubview(newView)

    newView.translatesAutoresizingMaskIntoConstraints = false
    let views = ["newView": newView]
    let widthConstraints = NSLayoutConstraint.constraints(withVisualFormat: "H:[newView(100)]", options: NSLayoutConstraint.FormatOptions(rawValue: 0), metrics: nil, views: views)
    let heightConstraints = NSLayoutConstraint.constraints(withVisualFormat: "V:[newView(100)]", options: NSLayoutConstraint.FormatOptions(rawValue: 0), metrics: nil, views: views)
    let horizontalConstraint = NSLayoutConstraint(item: newView, attribute: NSLayoutConstraint.Attribute.centerX, relatedBy: NSLayoutConstraint.Relation.equal, toItem: view, attribute: NSLayoutConstraint.Attribute.centerX, multiplier: 1, constant: 0)
    let verticalConstraint = NSLayoutConstraint(item: newView, attribute: NSLayoutConstraint.Attribute.centerY, relatedBy: NSLayoutConstraint.Relation.equal, toItem: view, attribute: NSLayoutConstraint.Attribute.centerY, multiplier: 1, constant: 0)
    NSLayoutConstraint.activate(widthConstraints)
    NSLayoutConstraint.activate(heightConstraints)
    NSLayoutConstraint.activate([horizontalConstraint, verticalConstraint])
}
override func viewDidLoad() {
    let newView = UIView()
    newView.backgroundColor = UIColor.red
    view.addSubview(newView)

    newView.translatesAutoresizingMaskIntoConstraints = false
    let views = ["newView": newView]
    let widthConstraints = NSLayoutConstraint.constraints(withVisualFormat: "H:[newView(100)]", options: NSLayoutConstraint.FormatOptions(rawValue: 0), metrics: nil, views: views)
    let heightConstraints = NSLayoutConstraint.constraints(withVisualFormat: "V:[newView(100)]", options: NSLayoutConstraint.FormatOptions(rawValue: 0), metrics: nil, views: views)
    NSLayoutConstraint.activate(widthConstraints)
    NSLayoutConstraint.activate(heightConstraints)
    NSLayoutConstraint(item: newView, attribute: NSLayoutConstraint.Attribute.centerX, relatedBy: NSLayoutConstraint.Relation.equal, toItem: view, attribute: NSLayoutConstraint.Attribute.centerX, multiplier: 1, constant: 0).isActive = true
    NSLayoutConstraint(item: newView, attribute: NSLayoutConstraint.Attribute.centerY, relatedBy: NSLayoutConstraint.Relation.equal, toItem: view, attribute: NSLayoutConstraint.Attribute.centerY, multiplier: 1, constant: 0).isActive = true
}

4. Using UIView.AutoresizingMask

Note: Springs and Struts will be translated into corresponding auto layout constraints at runtime.

override func viewDidLoad() {
    let newView = UIView(frame: CGRect(x: 0, y: 0, width: 100, height: 100))
    newView.backgroundColor = UIColor.red
    view.addSubview(newView)

    newView.translatesAutoresizingMaskIntoConstraints = true
    newView.center = CGPoint(x: view.bounds.midX, y: view.bounds.midY)
    newView.autoresizingMask = [UIView.AutoresizingMask.flexibleLeftMargin, UIView.AutoresizingMask.flexibleRightMargin, UIView.AutoresizingMask.flexibleTopMargin, UIView.AutoresizingMask.flexibleBottomMargin]
}

5. Using NSLayoutAnchor

override func viewDidLoad() {
    let newView = UIView()
    newView.backgroundColor = UIColor.red
    view.addSubview(newView)

    newView.translatesAutoresizingMaskIntoConstraints = false
    let horizontalConstraint = newView.centerXAnchor.constraint(equalTo: view.centerXAnchor)
    let verticalConstraint = newView.centerYAnchor.constraint(equalTo: view.centerYAnchor)
    let widthConstraint = newView.widthAnchor.constraint(equalToConstant: 100)
    let heightConstraint = newView.heightAnchor.constraint(equalToConstant: 100)
    view.addConstraints([horizontalConstraint, verticalConstraint, widthConstraint, heightConstraint])
}
override func viewDidLoad() {
    let newView = UIView()
    newView.backgroundColor = UIColor.red
    view.addSubview(newView)

    newView.translatesAutoresizingMaskIntoConstraints = false
    let horizontalConstraint = newView.centerXAnchor.constraint(equalTo: view.centerXAnchor)
    let verticalConstraint = newView.centerYAnchor.constraint(equalTo: view.centerYAnchor)
    let widthConstraint = newView.widthAnchor.constraint(equalToConstant: 100)
    let heightConstraint = newView.heightAnchor.constraint(equalToConstant: 100)
    NSLayoutConstraint.activate([horizontalConstraint, verticalConstraint, widthConstraint, heightConstraint])
}
override func viewDidLoad() {
    let newView = UIView()
    newView.backgroundColor = UIColor.red
    view.addSubview(newView)

    newView.translatesAutoresizingMaskIntoConstraints = false
    newView.centerXAnchor.constraint(equalTo: view.centerXAnchor).isActive = true
    newView.centerYAnchor.constraint(equalTo: view.centerYAnchor).isActive = true
    newView.widthAnchor.constraint(equalToConstant: 100).isActive = true
    newView.heightAnchor.constraint(equalToConstant: 100).isActive = true
}

6. Using intrinsicContentSize and NSLayoutAnchor

import UIKit

class CustomView: UIView {

    override var intrinsicContentSize: CGSize {
        return CGSize(width: 100, height: 100)
    }

}

class ViewController: UIViewController {

    override func viewDidLoad() {
        let newView = CustomView()
        newView.backgroundColor = UIColor.red
        view.addSubview(newView)

        newView.translatesAutoresizingMaskIntoConstraints = false
        let horizontalConstraint = newView.centerXAnchor.constraint(equalTo: view.centerXAnchor)
        let verticalConstraint = newView.centerYAnchor.constraint(equalTo: view.centerYAnchor)
        NSLayoutConstraint.activate([horizontalConstraint, verticalConstraint])
    }

}

Result:

enter image description here

@Liumx31 2015-09-26 20:26:35

Is there a way to animate the anchor style constraints?

@MathewS 2015-10-01 15:24:28

I didn't know about the option 5 / anchor style, I really like it because it fits best with the model of what I'm trying to do. But because I don't tend to update the constraints after they've been added I use a shorthand that activates them at the same time as creating them: e.g. newView.centerXAnchor.constraintEqualToAnchor(view.centerXAn‌​chor).active = true

@DogCoffee 2015-10-20 03:14:42

if you want offsets, use this for example let h = newView.centerXAnchor.constraintEqualToAnchor(view.centerXAn‌​chor, constant: 80) or let w = updatesAvailablePopover.centerYAnchor.constraintEqualToAncho‌​r(view.topAnchor, constant: 100)

@Joe Huang 2015-12-21 09:07:25

@MathewS by using the shorthand style, is it possible to change the constraint later on? How to change it? I have been trying to find an answer online but I just can't find it.

@MathewS 2016-01-05 20:30:15

@JoeHuang no, the short hand doesn't work if you want to change the constraint in the future because the shorthand is creating a new constraint. You'll need to use the anchor style Imanou uses in the answer if you want a reference to update a constraint in the future :)

@Gopal Devra 2016-07-15 14:59:18

I am trying to implement first method not working please let me know what is the issue

@Greg 2016-11-17 10:48:35

@Imanou, thanks. Your anchor example let me constrain a collection of UIButtons but when these didn't work, I tried a different approach. That caused the constraint not to work. You might like to check it out if you have time. See stackoverflow.com/questions/40650951/…

@Honey 2017-09-26 15:01:39

For the option of using anchors, why not do view.addConstraints([...]) instead of NSLayoutConstraint.activate([...])

@olanchuy 2017-10-29 13:05:48

What's with iOS having different setup for constraints? Any benefits on learning all of them or just stick to one?

@AppHero2 2017-12-15 07:08:11

amazed examples

@Saurabh Padwekar 2018-03-21 05:15:14

Amazed by the magical examples of Constraint Lord !! :)

@huwr 2018-04-16 03:59:52

Don't forget the newView.translatesAutoresizingMaskIntoConstraints = false part! That took me a while to see.

@Sayka 2018-10-15 06:23:28

Awesome. Thank you so much...

@ssowri1 2018-11-27 15:45:57

Thank you so much!

@Magnus 2019-01-22 12:51:13

I don't know if the code above stopped working - but I get Terminating app due to uncaught exception 'NSInvalidArgumentException', reason: 'NSLayoutConstraint for <UILabel: 0x7fb50c43e190; frame = (0 0; 0 0); userInteractionEnabled = NO; layer = <_UILabelLayer: 0x600001014320>>: Unknown layout attribute' running the example code as is

@Rizwan Mehboob 2018-06-01 08:51:24

Constraints for multiple views in playground.

swift 3+

  var yellowView: UIView!
    var redView: UIView!

    override func loadView() {

        // UI

        let view = UIView()
        view.backgroundColor = .white

        yellowView = UIView()
        yellowView.backgroundColor = .yellow
        view.addSubview(yellowView)

        redView = UIView()
        redView.backgroundColor = .red
        view.addSubview(redView)

        // Layout
        redView.translatesAutoresizingMaskIntoConstraints = false
        yellowView.translatesAutoresizingMaskIntoConstraints = false
        NSLayoutConstraint.activate([
            yellowView.topAnchor.constraint(equalTo: view.topAnchor, constant: 20),
            yellowView.leadingAnchor.constraint(equalTo: view.leadingAnchor, constant: 20),
            yellowView.widthAnchor.constraint(equalToConstant: 80),
            yellowView.heightAnchor.constraint(equalToConstant: 80),

            redView.bottomAnchor.constraint(equalTo: view.bottomAnchor, constant: -20),
            redView.trailingAnchor.constraint(equalTo: view.trailingAnchor,constant: -20),
            redView.widthAnchor.constraint(equalToConstant: 80),
            redView.heightAnchor.constraint(equalToConstant: 80)
            ])

        self.view = view
    }

In my opinion xcode playground is the best place for learning adding constraints programmatically.

Playground image

@Ryosuke Hujisawa 2017-12-10 00:56:08

Auto layout is realized by applying constraints on images. Use NSLayoutConstraint. It is possible to implement an ideal and beautiful design on all devices. Please try the code below.

import UIKit

class ViewController: UIViewController {

override func viewDidLoad() {
super.viewDidLoad()

let myImageView:UIImageView = UIImageView()
myImageView.backgroundColor = UIColor.red
myImageView.image = UIImage(named:"sample_dog")!
myImageView.translatesAutoresizingMaskIntoConstraints = false
myImageView.layer.borderColor = UIColor.red.cgColor
myImageView.layer.borderWidth = 10
self.view.addSubview(myImageView)

view.removeConstraints(view.constraints)


view.addConstraint(NSLayoutConstraint(
item: myImageView,
attribute: .top,
relatedBy: .equal,
toItem: view,
attribute: .top,
multiplier: 1,
constant:100)

)

view.addConstraint(NSLayoutConstraint(
item: myImageView,
attribute: .centerX,
relatedBy: .equal,
toItem: view,
attribute: .centerX,
multiplier: 1,
constant:0)
)

view.addConstraint(NSLayoutConstraint(
item: myImageView,
attribute: .height,
relatedBy: .equal,
toItem: view,
attribute: .width,
multiplier: 0.5,
constant:40))

view.addConstraint(NSLayoutConstraint(
item: myImageView,
attribute: .width,
relatedBy: .equal,
toItem: view,
attribute: .width,
multiplier: 0.5,
constant:40))

}

override func didReceiveMemoryWarning() {
    super.didReceiveMemoryWarning()
}
}

enter image description here enter image description here

@Þorvaldur Rúnarsson 2017-11-29 15:59:10

If you find the above to be ugly. You should consider using a DSL for constraints. Such as SnapKit Makes constraint API much more user-friendly

view.snp.makeConstraints { make in
    make.edges.equalToSuperview()
}

@iAj 2017-08-11 03:44:24

Updated for Swift 3

import UIKit

class ViewController: UIViewController {

let redView: UIView = {

    let view = UIView()
    view.translatesAutoresizingMaskIntoConstraints = false
    view.backgroundColor = .red
    return view
}()

override func viewDidLoad() {
    super.viewDidLoad()

    setupViews()
    setupAutoLayout()
}

func setupViews() {

    view.backgroundColor = .white
    view.addSubview(redView)
}

func setupAutoLayout() {

    // Available from iOS 9 commonly known as Anchoring System for AutoLayout...
    redView.leftAnchor.constraint(equalTo: view.leftAnchor, constant: 20).isActive = true
    redView.rightAnchor.constraint(equalTo: view.rightAnchor, constant: -20).isActive = true

    redView.centerYAnchor.constraint(equalTo: view.centerYAnchor).isActive = true
    redView.heightAnchor.constraint(equalToConstant: 300).isActive = true

    // You can also modified above last two lines as follows by commenting above & uncommenting below lines...
    // redView.topAnchor.constraint(equalTo: view.topAnchor, constant: 20).isActive = true
    // redView.bottomAnchor.constraint(equalTo: view.bottomAnchor).isActive = true
 }
}

enter image description here

Type of Constraints

 /*
// regular use
1.leftAnchor
2.rightAnchor
3.topAnchor
// intermediate use
4.widthAnchor
5.heightAnchor
6.bottomAnchor
7.centerXAnchor
8.centerYAnchor
// rare use
9.leadingAnchor
10.trailingAnchor
etc. (note: very project to project)
*/

@iAj 2017-09-13 07:18:35

Don't forget to add, youViewName.translatesAutoresizingMaskIntoConstraints = false

@Ramprasath Selvam 2017-07-26 13:43:50

This is one way to adding constraints programmatically

override func viewDidLoad() {
            super.viewDidLoad()


let myLabel = UILabel()
        myLabel.labelFrameUpdate(label: myLabel, text: "Welcome User", font: UIFont(name: "times new roman", size: 40)!, textColor: UIColor.red, textAlignment: .center, numberOfLines: 0, borderWidth: 2.0, BorderColor: UIColor.red.cgColor)
        self.view.addSubview(myLabel)


         let myLabelhorizontalConstraint = NSLayoutConstraint(item: myLabel, attribute: NSLayoutAttribute.centerX, relatedBy: NSLayoutRelation.equal, toItem: self.view, attribute: NSLayoutAttribute.centerX, multiplier: 1, constant: 0)
        let myLabelverticalConstraint = NSLayoutConstraint(item: myLabel, attribute: NSLayoutAttribute.centerY, relatedBy: NSLayoutRelation.equal, toItem: self.view, attribute: NSLayoutAttribute.centerY, multiplier: 1, constant: 0)
        let mylabelLeading = NSLayoutConstraint(item: myLabel, attribute: NSLayoutAttribute.leading, relatedBy: NSLayoutRelation.equal, toItem: self.view, attribute: NSLayoutAttribute.leading, multiplier: 1, constant: 10)
        let mylabelTrailing = NSLayoutConstraint(item: myLabel, attribute: NSLayoutAttribute.trailing, relatedBy: NSLayoutRelation.equal, toItem: self.view, attribute: NSLayoutAttribute.trailing, multiplier: 1, constant: -10)
        let myLabelheightConstraint = NSLayoutConstraint(item: myLabel, attribute: NSLayoutAttribute.height, relatedBy: NSLayoutRelation.equal, toItem: nil, attribute: NSLayoutAttribute.notAnAttribute, multiplier: 1, constant: 50)
        NSLayoutConstraint.activate(\[myLabelhorizontalConstraint, myLabelverticalConstraint, myLabelheightConstraint,mylabelLeading,mylabelTrailing\])
}

extension UILabel
{
    func labelFrameUpdate(label:UILabel,text:String = "This is sample Label",font:UIFont = UIFont(name: "times new roman", size: 20)!,textColor:UIColor = UIColor.red,textAlignment:NSTextAlignment = .center,numberOfLines:Int = 0,borderWidth:CGFloat = 2.0,BorderColor:CGColor = UIColor.red.cgColor){
        label.translatesAutoresizingMaskIntoConstraints = false
        label.text = text
        label.font = font
        label.textColor = textColor
        label.textAlignment = textAlignment
        label.numberOfLines = numberOfLines
        label.layer.borderWidth = borderWidth
        label.layer.borderColor = UIColor.red.cgColor
    }
}

enter image description here

@Suragch 2016-03-28 13:52:18

It helps me to learn visually, so this is a supplemental answer.

Boilerplate code

override func viewDidLoad() {
    super.viewDidLoad()

    let myView = UIView()
    myView.backgroundColor = UIColor.blue
    myView.translatesAutoresizingMaskIntoConstraints = false
    view.addSubview(myView)

    // Add constraints code here
    // ...
}

Each of the following examples are independent of the others.

Pin left edge

myView.leading = leadingMargin + 20

enter image description here

Method 1: Anchor Style

let margins = view.layoutMarginsGuide
myView.leadingAnchor.constraint(equalTo: margins.leadingAnchor, constant: 20).isActive = true
  • In addition to leadingAnchor, there is also trailingAnchor, topAnchor, and bottomAnchor.

Method 2: NSLayoutConstraint Style

NSLayoutConstraint(item: myView, attribute: NSLayoutAttribute.leading, relatedBy: NSLayoutRelation.equal, toItem: view, attribute: NSLayoutAttribute.leadingMargin, multiplier: 1.0, constant: 20.0).isActive = true
  • In addition to .leading there is also .trailing, .top, and .bottom.
  • In addition to .leadingMargin there is also .trailingMargin, .topMargin, and .bottomMargin.

Set Width and Height

width = 200
height = 100

enter image description here

Method 1: Anchor Style

myView.widthAnchor.constraint(equalToConstant: 200).isActive = true
myView.heightAnchor.constraint(equalToConstant: 100).isActive = true

Method 2: NSLayoutConstraint Style

NSLayoutConstraint(item: myView, attribute: NSLayoutAttribute.width, relatedBy: NSLayoutRelation.equal, toItem: nil, attribute: NSLayoutAttribute.notAnAttribute, multiplier: 1, constant: 200).isActive = true
NSLayoutConstraint(item: myView, attribute: NSLayoutAttribute.height, relatedBy: NSLayoutRelation.equal, toItem: nil, attribute: NSLayoutAttribute.notAnAttribute, multiplier: 1, constant: 100).isActive = true

Center in container

myView.centerX = centerX
myView.centerY = centerY

enter image description here

Method 1: Anchor Style

myView.centerXAnchor.constraint(equalTo: view.centerXAnchor).isActive = true
myView.centerYAnchor.constraint(equalTo: view.centerYAnchor).isActive = true

Method 2: NSLayoutConstraint Style

NSLayoutConstraint(item: myView, attribute: NSLayoutAttribute.centerX, relatedBy: NSLayoutRelation.equal, toItem: view, attribute: NSLayoutAttribute.centerX, multiplier: 1, constant: 0).isActive = true
NSLayoutConstraint(item: myView, attribute: NSLayoutAttribute.centerY, relatedBy: NSLayoutRelation.equal, toItem: view, attribute: NSLayoutAttribute.centerY, multiplier: 1, constant: 0).isActive = true

Notes

  • Anchor style is the preferred method over NSLayoutConstraint Style, however it is only available from iOS 9, so if you are supporting iOS 8 then you should still use NSLayoutConstraint Style.
  • The examples above showed just the one or two constraints that were being focused on. However, in order to properly place myView in my test project I needed to have four constraints.

Further Reading

@CyberDude 2016-07-05 19:09:35

Very nice! One small note: only one of leading vs. centerX constraints should be specified.

@Suragch 2016-07-06 20:33:19

@CyberDude, yes, you are correct. I meant for all of the examples above to be independent of each other, not adding all of the constraints to the same view. That is not as clear as I would have liked, though.

@Martin 2017-05-31 05:10:25

You left out the necessary addConstraint() on view in order to make the layoutconstraints register.

@Suragch 2017-05-31 05:14:48

@Cyrus, setting isActive = true also works.

@Martin 2017-05-31 05:31:15

Oh, thank you. My bad, I didn't know that.

@AppHero2 2017-12-15 07:09:06

thank you for your kindness

@Amir Khan 2018-07-08 05:30:46

@Suragch Awesome ;)

@Josh Homann 2016-10-21 19:31:51

If you want to fill your super view then I suggest the swifty way:

    view.translatesAutoresizingMaskIntoConstraints = false
    let attributes: [NSLayoutAttribute] = [.top, .bottom, .right, .left]
    NSLayoutConstraint.activate(attributes.map {
        NSLayoutConstraint(item: view, attribute: $0, relatedBy: .equal, toItem: view.superview, attribute: $0, multiplier: 1, constant: 0)
    })

Other wise if you need non equal constraints check out NSLayoutAnchor as of iOS 9. Its often much easier to read that using NSLayoutConstraint directly:

    view.translatesAutoresizingMaskIntoConstraints = false
    view.topAnchor.constraint(equalTo: view.superview!.topAnchor).isActive = true
    view.bottomAnchor.constraint(equalTo: view.superview!.bottomAnchor).isActive = true
    view.leadingAnchor.constraint(equalTo: view.superview!.leadingAnchor, constant: 10).isActive = true
    view.trailingAnchor.constraint(equalTo: view.superview!.trailingAnchor, constant: 10).isActive = true

@Honey 2018-01-22 16:14:24

Based on this moment of WWDC video. It's generally not efficient to activate constraints one by one ie doing isActive = true is not always a good idea. It's better and more performant to group the related constraints into one and activate them all at once using NSLayoutConstraint.activate.

@Alan 2016-10-10 18:35:27

it is a little different in xcode 7.3.1. this is what i come up with

   // creating the view
        let newView = UIView()
        newView.backgroundColor = UIColor.redColor()
        newView.translatesAutoresizingMaskIntoConstraints = false
        view.addSubview(newView)

        // creating the constraint 

        // attribute and relation cannot be set directyl you need to create a cariable of them
        let layout11 = NSLayoutAttribute.CenterX
        let layout21 = NSLayoutRelation.Equal
        let layout31 = NSLayoutAttribute.CenterY
        let layout41 = NSLayoutAttribute.Width
        let layout51 = NSLayoutAttribute.Height
        let layout61 = NSLayoutAttribute.NotAnAttribute

        // defining all the constraint
        let horizontalConstraint = NSLayoutConstraint(item: newView, attribute: layout11, relatedBy: layout21, toItem: view, attribute: layout11, multiplier: 1, constant: 0)
        let verticalConstraint = NSLayoutConstraint(item: newView, attribute: layout31, relatedBy: layout21, toItem: view, attribute: layout31, multiplier: 1, constant: 0)
        let widthConstraint = NSLayoutConstraint(item: newView, attribute: layout41, relatedBy: layout21, toItem: nil, attribute: layout61, multiplier: 1, constant: 100)
        let heightConstraint = NSLayoutConstraint(item: newView, attribute: layout51, relatedBy: layout21, toItem: nil, attribute: layout61, multiplier: 1, constant: 100)

        // adding all the constraint
        NSLayoutConstraint.activateConstraints([horizontalConstraint,verticalConstraint,widthConstraint,heightConstraint])

@Marin 2017-01-17 23:44:18

translatesAutoresizingMaskIntoConstraints = false :))

@Valerii Lider 2016-09-14 11:11:50

You are adding all defined constraints to self.view which is wrong, as width and height constraint should be added to your newView.

Also, as I understand you want to set constant width and height 100:100. In this case you should change your code to:

var constW = NSLayoutConstraint(item: newView, 
    attribute: .Width, 
    relatedBy: .Equal, 
    toItem: nil, 
    attribute: .NotAnAttribute, 
    multiplier: 1, 
    constant: 100)
newView.addConstraint(constW)

var constH = NSLayoutConstraint(item: newView, 
    attribute: .Height, 
    relatedBy: .Equal, 
    toItem: nil, 
    attribute: .NotAnAttribute, 
    multiplier: 1, 
    constant: 100)
newView.addConstraint(constH)

@Yogesh shelke 2016-03-03 08:09:44

    var xCenterConstraint : NSLayoutConstraint!
    var yCenterConstraint: NSLayoutConstraint!

 xCenterConstraint = NSLayoutConstraint(item: self.view, attribute: .CenterX, relatedBy: .Equal, toItem: (Your view NAme), attribute: .CenterX, multiplier: 1, constant: 0)
            self.view.addConstraint(xCenterConstraint)

 yCenterConstraint = NSLayoutConstraint(item: self.view, attribute: .CenterY, relatedBy: .Equal, toItem: (Your view Name), attribute: .CenterY, multiplier: 1, constant: 0)
            self.view.addConstraint(yCenterConstraint)

@Ben Rhys-Lewis 2016-03-03 08:28:03

Please explain the code and how it answers the question.

@rob mayoff 2014-10-03 16:02:56

The problem, as the error message suggests, is that you have constraints of type NSAutoresizingMaskLayoutConstraints that conflict with your explicit constraints, because new_view.translatesAutoresizingMaskIntoConstraints is set to true.

This is the default setting for views you create in code. You can turn it off like this:

var new_view:UIView! = UIView(frame: CGRectMake(0, 0, 100, 100))
new_view.translatesAutoresizingMaskIntoConstraints = false

Also, your width and height constraints are weird. If you want the view to have a constant width, this is the proper way:

new_view.addConstraint(NSLayoutConstraint(
    item:new_view, attribute:NSLayoutAttribute.Width,
    relatedBy:NSLayoutRelation.Equal,
    toItem:nil, attribute:NSLayoutAttribute.NotAnAttribute,
    multiplier:0, constant:100))

(Replace 100 by the width you want it to have.)

If your deployment target is iOS 9.0 or later, you can use this shorter code:

new_view.widthAnchor.constraintEqualToConstant(100).active = true

Anyway, for a layout like this (fixed size and centered in parent view), it would be simpler to use the autoresizing mask and let the system translate the mask into constraints:

var new_view:UIView! = UIView(frame: CGRectMake(0, 0, 100, 100))
new_view.backgroundColor = UIColor.redColor();
view.addSubview(new_view);

// This is the default setting but be explicit anyway...
new_view.translatesAutoresizingMaskIntoConstraints = true

new_view.autoresizingMask = [ .FlexibleTopMargin, .FlexibleBottomMargin,
    .FlexibleLeftMargin, .FlexibleRightMargin ]

new_view.center = CGPointMake(view.bounds.midX, view.bounds.midY)

Note that using autoresizing is perfectly legitimate even when you're also using autolayout. (UIKit still uses autoresizing in lots of places internally.) The problem is that it's difficult to apply additional constraints to a view that is using autoresizing.

@Greg 2016-11-17 11:18:47

if UIKit uses autoresizing internally could that explain misbehaviour of constraints that are anchored in the centre ? When I organise a collection of UIButtons as a subclass of UIview the anchor constraints appear to work but they do not work when I organise them as functions within a viewcontroller. If you can spare the time you might have a look at this post [stackoverflow.com/questions/40650951/…‌ ler-we-cant-actually-add-any-new-fences-due]

@rob mayoff 2016-11-17 17:43:52

No, that doesn't explain the misbehavior of your code.

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