By spirytus

2014-12-31 02:08:30 8 Comments

What is the difference between:

new Promise(function(res, rej) {
  .then(function(result) {
    return "bbb";
  .then(function(result) {

and this:

new Promise(function(res, rej) {
  .then(function(result) {
    return Promise.resolve("bbb");
  .then(function(result) {

I'm asking as I'm getting different behaviour Using Angular and $http service with chaining .then(). A bit too much code hence first the example above.


@vkarpov15 2020-01-22 16:30:18

The only difference is that you're creating an unnecessary promise when you do return Promise.resolve("bbb"). Returning a promise from an onFulfilled() handler kicks off promise resolution. That's how promise chaining works.

@Arian Acosta 2017-11-07 22:00:59

In simple terms, inside a then handler function:

A) When x is a value (number, string, etc):

  1. return x is equivalent to return Promise.resolve(x)
  2. throw x is equivalent to return Promise.reject(x)

B) When x is a Promise that is already settled (not pending anymore):

  1. return x is equivalent to return Promise.resolve(x), if the Promise was already resolved.
  2. return x is equivalent to return Promise.reject(x), if the Promise was already rejected.

C) When x is a Promise that is pending:

  1. return x will return a pending Promise, and it will be evaluated on the subsequent then.

Read more on this topic on the Promise.prototype.then() docs.

@JLRishe 2014-12-31 05:21:45

Both of your examples should behave pretty much the same.

A value returned inside a then() handler becomes the resolution value of the promise returned from that then(). If the value returned inside the .then is a promise, the promise returned by then() will "adopt the state" of that promise and resolve/reject just as the returned promise does.

In your first example, you return "bbb" in the first then() handler, so "bbb" is passed into the next then() handler.

In your second example, you return a promise that is immediately resolved with the value "bbb", so "bbb" is passed into the next then() handler. (The Promise.resolve() here is extraneous).

The outcome is the same.

If you can show us an example that actually exhibits different behavior, we can tell you why that is happening.

@FabianTe 2018-05-29 12:06:51

Nice answer! What about Promise.resolve(); vs return;?

@JLRishe 2018-05-29 19:42:10

@FabianTe Those also would have the same effect, except with undefined instead of "bbb".

@Hrishi 2014-12-31 05:31:43

The rule is, if the function that is in the then handler returns a value, the promise resolves/rejects with that value, and if the function returns a promise, what happens is, the next then clause will be the then clause of the promise the function returned, so, in this case, the first example falls through the normal sequence of the thens and prints out values as one might expect, in the second example, the promise object that gets returned when you do Promise.resolve("bbb")'s then is the then that gets invoked when chaining(for all intents and purposes). The way it actually works is described below in more detail.

Quoting from the Promises/A+ spec:

The promise resolution procedure is an abstract operation taking as input a promise and a value, which we denote as [[Resolve]](promise, x). If x is a thenable, it attempts to make promise adopt the state of x, under the assumption that x behaves at least somewhat like a promise. Otherwise, it fulfills promise with the value x.

This treatment of thenables allows promise implementations to interoperate, as long as they expose a Promises/A+-compliant then method. It also allows Promises/A+ implementations to “assimilate” nonconformant implementations with reasonable then methods.

The key thing to notice here is this line:

if x is a promise, adopt its state [3.4]


@user663031 2014-12-31 06:32:36

"Adopt its state" is a concise and useful way to express the behavior when a then handler returns a promise. +1 for the spec reference.

@Benjamin Gruenbaum 2014-12-31 07:20:29

Actually - the relevant part of the spec here is the fact that [[Resolve]] is called both on thenables and values so essentially it wraps a value with the promise so return "aaa" is the same as return Promise.resolve("aaa") and return Promise.resolve("aaa") is the same as return Promise.resolve(Promise.resolve("aaa")) - since resolve is idempotent calling it on a value more than once has the same result.

@CSnerd 2015-12-06 19:10:24

@Benjamin Gruenbaum does it mean that return "aaa" and return Promise.resolve("aaa") are interchangeable in thenables in any cases?

@Benjamin Gruenbaum 2015-12-06 20:01:58

Yes, that's exactly what it means.

@Suraj Jain 2019-12-25 11:07:44

@BenjaminGruenbaum Promise.resolve(Promise.resolve("aaa")) are same, because Promise.resolve() returns Promise object that is resolved with the given value. If the value is a thenable (i.e. has a then method), the returned promise will "follow" that thenable, adopting its eventual state; otherwise the returned promise will be fulfilled with the value. Am I right?

@Benjamin Gruenbaum 2014-12-31 07:37:13

You already got a good formal answer. I figured I should add a short one.

The following things are identical with Promises/A+ promises:

  • Calling Promise.resolve (In your Angular case that's $q.when)
  • Calling the promise constructor and resolving in its resolver. In your case that's new $q.
  • Returning a value from a then callback.
  • Calling Promise.all on an array with a value and then extract that value.

So the following are all identical for a promise or plain value X:

new Promise(function(resolve, reject){ resolve(x); });
Promise.resolve().then(function(){ return x; });
Promise.all([x]).then(function(arr){ return arr[0]; });

And it's no surprise, the promises specification is based on the Promise Resolution Procedure which enables easy interoperation between libraries (like $q and native promises) and makes your life overall easier. Whenever a promise resolution might occur a resolution occurs creating overall consistency.

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