By TofuBeer

2009-03-05 08:18:54 8 Comments

For a number of years now I have been unable to get a decent answer to the following question: why are some developers so against checked exceptions? I have had numerous conversations, read things on blogs, read what Bruce Eckel had to say (the first person I saw speak out against them).

I am currently writing some new code and paying very careful attention to how I deal with exceptions. I am trying to see the point of view of the "we don't like checked exceptions" crowd and I still cannot see it.

Every conversation I have ends with the same question going unanswered... let me set it up:

In general (from how Java was designed),

  • Error is for things that should never be caught (VM has a peanut allergy and someone dropped a jar of peanuts on it)
  • RuntimeException is for things that the programmer did wrong (programmer walked off the end of an array)
  • Exception (except RuntimeException) is for things that are out of the programmer's control (disk fills up while writing to the file system, file handle limit for the process has been reached and you cannot open any more files)
  • Throwable is simply the parent of all of the exception types.

A common argument I hear is that if an exception happens then all the developer is going to do is exit the program.

Another common argument I hear is that checked exceptions make it harder to refactor code.

For the "all I am going to do is exit" argument I say that even if you are exiting you need to display a reasonable error message. If you are just punting on handling errors then your users won't be overly happy when the program exits without a clear indication of why.

For the "it makes it hard to refactor" crowd, that indicates that the proper level of abstraction wasn't chosen. Rather than declare a method throws an IOException, the IOException should be transformed into an exception that is more suited for what is going on.

I don't have an issue with wrapping Main with catch(Exception) (or in some cases catch(Throwable) to ensure that the program can exit gracefully - but I always catch the specific exceptions I need to. Doing that allows me to, at the very least, display an appropriate error message.

The question that people never reply to is this:

If you throw RuntimeException subclasses instead of Exception subclasses then how do you know what you are supposed to catch?

If the answer is catch Exception then you are also dealing with programmer errors the same way as system exceptions. That seems wrong to me.

If you catch Throwable then you are treating system exceptions and VM errors (and the like) the same way. That seems wrong to me.

If the answer is that you catch only the exceptions you know are thrown then how do you know what ones are thrown? What happens when programmer X throws a new exception and forgot to catch it? That seems very dangerous to me.

I would say that a program that displays a stack trace is wrong. Do people who don't like checked exceptions not feel that way?

So, if you don't like checked exceptions can you explain why not AND answer the question that doesn't get answered please?

I am not looking for advice on when to use either model, what I am looking for is why people extend from RuntimeException because they don't like extending from Exception and/or why they catch an exception and then rethrow a RuntimeException rather than add throws to their method. I want to understand the motivation for disliking checked exceptions.


@Rhubarb 2009-03-05 12:03:49

I think I read the same Bruce Eckel interview that you did - and it's always bugged me. In fact, the argument was made by the interviewee (if this is indeed the post you're talking about) Anders Hejlsberg, the MS genius behind .NET and C#.

Fan though I am of Hejlsberg and his work, this argument has always struck me as bogus. It basically boils down to:

"Checked exceptions are bad because programmers just abuse them by always catching them and dismissing them which leads to problems being hidden and ignored that would otherwise be presented to the user".

By "otherwise presented to the user" I mean if you use a runtime exception the lazy programmer will just ignore it (versus catching it with an empty catch block) and the user will see it.

The summary of the summary of the argument is that "Programmers won't use them properly and not using them properly is worse than not having them".

There is some truth to this argument and in fact, I suspect Goslings motivation for not putting operator overrides in Java comes from a similar argument - they confuse the programmer because they are often abused.

But in the end, I find it a bogus argument of Hejlsberg's and possibly a post-hoc one created to explain the lack rather than a well thought out decision.

I would argue that while the over-use of checked exceptions is a bad thing and tends to lead to sloppy handling by users, but the proper use of them allows the API programmer to give great benefit to the API client programmer.

Now the API programmer has to be careful not to throw checked exceptions all over the place, or they will simply annoy the client programmer. The very lazy client programmer will resort to catch (Exception) {} as Hejlsberg warns and all benefit will be lost and hell will ensue. But in some circumstances, there's just no substitute for a good checked exception.

For me, the classic example is the file-open API. Every programming language in the history of languages (on file systems at least) has an API somewhere that lets you open a file. And every client programmer using this API knows that they have to deal with the case that the file they are trying to open doesn't exist. Let me rephrase that: Every client programmer using this API should know that they have to deal with this case. And there's the rub: can the API programmer help them know they should deal with it through commenting alone or can they indeed insist the client deal with it.

In C the idiom goes something like

  if (f = fopen("goodluckfindingthisfile")) { ... } 
  else { // file not found ...

where fopen indicates failure by returning 0 and C (foolishly) lets you treat 0 as a boolean and... Basically, you learn this idiom and you're okay. But what if you're a noob and you didn't learn the idiom. Then, of course, you start out with

   f = fopen("goodluckfindingthisfile");; // BANG! 

and learn the hard way.

Note that we're only talking about strongly typed languages here: There's a clear idea of what an API is in a strongly typed language: It's a smorgasbord of functionality (methods) for you to use with a clearly defined protocol for each one.

That clearly defined protocol is typically defined by a method signature. Here fopen requires that you pass it a string (or a char* in the case of C). If you give it something else you get a compile-time error. You didn't follow the protocol - you're not using the API properly.

In some (obscure) languages the return type is part of the protocol too. If you try to call the equivalent of fopen() in some languages without assigning it to a variable you'll also get a compile-time error (you can only do that with void functions).

The point I'm trying to make is that: In a statically typed language the API programmer encourages the client to use the API properly by preventing their client code from compiling if it makes any obvious mistakes.

(In a dynamically typed language, like Ruby, you can pass anything, say a float, as the file name - and it will compile. Why hassle the user with checked exceptions if you're not even going to control the method arguments. The arguments made here apply to statically-typed languages only.)

So, what about checked exceptions?

Well here's one of the Java APIs you can use for opening a file.

try {
  f = new FileInputStream("goodluckfindingthisfile");
catch (FileNotFoundException e) {
  // deal with it. No really, deal with it!
  ... // this is me dealing with it

See that catch? Here's the signature for that API method:

public FileInputStream(String name)
                throws FileNotFoundException

Note that FileNotFoundException is a checked exception.

The API programmer is saying this to you: "You may use this constructor to create a new FileInputStream but you

a) must pass in the file name as a String
b) must accept the possibility that the file might not be found at runtime"

And that's the whole point as far as I'm concerned.

The key is basically what the question states as "Things that are out of the programmer's control". My first thought was that he/she means things that are out of the API programmers control. But in fact, checked exceptions when used properly should really be for things that are out of both the client programmer's and the API programmer's control. I think this is the key to not abusing checked exceptions.

I think the file-open illustrates the point nicely. The API programmer knows you might give them a file name that turns out to be nonexistent at the time the API is called, and that they won't be able to return you what you wanted, but will have to throw an exception. They also know that this will happen pretty regularly and that the client programmer might expect the file name to be correct at the time they wrote the call, but it might be wrong at runtime for reasons beyond their control too.

So the API makes it explicit: There will be cases where this file doesn't exist at the time you call me and you had damn well better deal with it.

This would be clearer with a counter-case. Imagine I'm writing a table API. I have the table model somewhere with an API including this method:

public RowData getRowData(int row) 

Now as an API programmer I know there will be cases where some client passes in a negative value for the row or a row value outside of the table. So I might be tempted to throw a checked exception and force the client to deal with it:

public RowData getRowData(int row) throws CheckedInvalidRowNumberException

(I wouldn't really call it "Checked" of course.)

This is bad use of checked exceptions. The client code is going to be full of calls to fetch row data, every one of which is going to have to use a try/catch, and for what? Are they going to report to the user that the wrong row was sought? Probably not - because whatever the UI surrounding my table view is, it shouldn't let the user get into a state where an illegal row is being requested. So it's a bug on the part of the client programmer.

The API programmer can still predict that the client will code such bugs and should handle it with a runtime exception like an IllegalArgumentException.

With a checked exception in getRowData, this is clearly a case that's going to lead to Hejlsberg's lazy programmer simply adding empty catches. When that happens, the illegal row values will not be obvious even to the tester or the client developer debugging, rather they'll lead to knock-on errors that are hard to pinpoint the source of. Arianne rockets will blow up after launch.

Okay, so here's the problem: I'm saying that the checked exception FileNotFoundException is not just a good thing but an essential tool in the API programmers toolbox for defining the API in the most useful way for the client programmer. But the CheckedInvalidRowNumberException is a big inconvenience, leading to bad programming and should be avoided. But how to tell the difference.

I guess it's not an exact science and I guess that underlies and perhaps justifies to a certain extent Hejlsberg's argument. But I'm not happy throwing the baby out with the bathwater here, so allow me to extract some rules here to distinguish good checked exceptions from bad:

  1. Out of client's control or Closed vs Open:

    Checked exceptions should only be used where the error case is out of control of both the API and the client programmer. This has to do with how open or closed the system is. In a constrained UI where the client programmer has control, say, over all of the buttons, keyboard commands etc that add and delete rows from the table view (a closed system), it is a client programming bug if it attempts to fetch data from a nonexistent row. In a file-based operating system where any number of users/applications can add and delete files (an open system), it is conceivable that the file the client is requesting has been deleted without their knowledge so they should be expected to deal with it.

  2. Ubiquity:

    Checked exceptions should not be used on an API call that is made frequently by the client. By frequently I mean from a lot of places in the client code - not frequently in time. So a client code doesn't tend to try to open the same file a lot, but my table view gets RowData all over the place from different methods. In particular, I'm going to be writing a lot of code like

    if (model.getRowData().getCell(0).isEmpty())

    and it will be painful to have to wrap in try/catch every time.

  3. Informing the User:

    Checked exceptions should be used in cases where you can imagine a useful error message being presented to the end user. This is the "and what will you do when it happens?" question I raised above. It also relates to item 1. Since you can predict that something outside of your client-API system might cause the file to not be there, you can reasonably tell the user about it:

    "Error: could not find the file 'goodluckfindingthisfile'"

    Since your illegal row number was caused by an internal bug and through no fault of the user, there's really no useful information you can give them. If your app doesn't let runtime exceptions fall through to the console it will probably end up giving them some ugly message like:

    "Internal error occured: IllegalArgumentException in ...."

    In short, if you don't think your client programmer can explain your exception in a way that helps the user, then you should probably not be using a checked exception.

So those are my rules. Somewhat contrived, and there will doubtless be exceptions (please help me refine them if you will). But my main argument is that there are cases like FileNotFoundException where the checked exception is as important and useful a part of the API contract as the parameter types. So we should not dispense with it just because it is misused.

Sorry, didn't mean to make this so long and waffly. Let me finish with two suggestions:

A: API programmers: use checked exceptions sparingly to preserve their usefulness. When in doubt use an unchecked exception.

B: Client programmers: get in the habit of creating a wrapped exception (google it) early on in your development. JDK 1.4 and later provide a constructor in RuntimeException for this, but you can easily create your own too. Here's the constructor:

public RuntimeException(Throwable cause)

Then get in the habit of whenever you have to handle a checked exception and you're feeling lazy (or you think the API programmer was overzealous in using the checked exception in the first place), don't just swallow the exception, wrap it and rethrow it.

try {
catch (OverzealousCheckedException exception) {
  throw new RuntimeException(exception);  

Put this in one of your IDE's little code templates and use it when you're feeling lazy. This way if you really need to handle the checked exception you'll be forced to come back and deal with it after seeing the problem at runtime. Because, believe me (and Anders Hejlsberg), you're never going to come back to that TODO in your

catch (Exception e) { /* TODO deal with this at some point (yeah right) */}

@Michael Borgwardt 2009-05-05 11:02:56

Opening files is actually a good example for utterly counterproductive checked exceptions are. Because most of the time the code that opens the file can NOT do anything useful about the exception - that's better done several layers up the call stack. The checked exception forces you to clutter your method signatures just so you can do what you would have done anyway - handle the exception in the place where it makes most sense to do so.

@Rhubarb 2009-05-11 12:02:08

@Michael: Agreed you might generally handle these IO exceptions several levels higher - but I don't hear you denying that as an API client you have to anticipate these. For this reason, I think checked exceptions are appropriate. Yeah, you are going to have to declared "throws" on each method up call stack, but I disagree that this is clutter. It's useful declarative information in your method signatures. You're saying: my low-level methods might run into a missing file, but they'll leave the handling of it to you. I see nothing to lose and only good, clean code to gain

@R. Martinho Fernandes 2009-08-04 18:34:52

@Rhubarb: +1, very interesting answer, shows arguments for both sides. Great. About your last comment: note that declaring throws on each method up the call stack may not always be possible, especially if you are implementing an interface along the way.

@Mankarse 2011-08-20 08:13:34

This is a very strong argument (and I agree with it in general), but there is a case where it doesn't work: generic callbacks. If I have some a library calls some user-defined code, there is no way (that I know of, in java) for that library to propagate checked exceptions from the user-code that it calls to the user code that calls it. This problem also extends to other parts of the type system of many statically typed languages that do not support proper generic types. This answer would be improved by a mention of this (and perhaps a response).

@James Wald 2013-02-14 05:32:24

Thanks for the detailed response. I do agree with most of this, however, I don't believe 'ubiquity' or 'informing the user' are valid factors. The first point, when the error is out of the API programmer's control and out of the API client's control, is all that is needed to validate the use of a checked exception. The most obvious misuse of checked exceptions I have encountered is the API for org.json.JSONObject. When working with pre-validated JSON content it is correct to write 'try, da da da da da, catch, curly curly', otherwise I would be writing dead code in the catch clause.

@supercat 2013-12-17 21:14:30

@JamesWald: I would posit that the proper behavior with regard to checked exceptions a method is never supposed to throw would be to wrap them in some kind of run-time error; indeed, I would further posit that 99% of the griping about checked exceptions stems from the lack of a concise way to express that declaratively rather than imperatively.

@James Wald 2013-12-17 22:13:03

@supercat Since I last wrote this I've learned to wrap and throw using runtime exceptions (or assertion errors where appropriate).

@supercat 2013-12-17 23:01:38

@JamesWald: Do you agree that it would have been nice if there had been a way of wrapping a block in a declaration "doesntcatch FooException,BarException", and having the compiler automatically perform the appropriate catch-wrap-rethrow?

@James Wald 2013-12-18 04:38:41

@supercat I think Java 7's syntax for multi-catch exceptions is a good compromise. It looks very much like existing try-catch blocks and it doesn't require new bytecode so it's also backwards compatible. I'm using it for Android development today even though devices prior to Android 4.4 KitKat don't support Java 7's new bytecode for try-with-resources.

@supercat 2013-12-18 05:13:38

@JamesWald: A doesntcatch directive wouldn't require new byte code, and I would think it better conveyed a programmer's intention than would catch-and-rethrow, catch-and-swallow, or--worse--throws. A method should only allow checked exceptions to percolate out if it knows what they mean, and knows the disruption of program flow won't cause other things to be broken. If a method calls another which isn't expected to actually throw a checked exception but it does anyway, percolating out that exception may cause a caller to erroneously believe it can handle the condition that caused it.

@Thomas W 2014-06-02 02:01:16

Wrong @Rhubarb. Checked exceptions were intended for 'contingencies' which could & should be handled, but were always incompatible with "throw early, catch late" best practice. Opening a file is a cherry-picked example, which can be handled. Most IOException (eg writing a byte), SQLException, RemoteException are impossible to handle in a meaningful way. Failure or retry should be at "business" or "request" level, and checked exceptions -- as used in Java libraries -- are a mistake that makes that difficult.…

@Chris Moschini 2015-04-08 15:27:33

There is some irony that the only expert opinion you defer to - the Bruce Eckel/Anders interview - disagrees with your position. In the interview, BOTH Bruce and Anders agree Checked Exceptions was a serious mistake in Java, Anders feeling good he dodged it in C#, and Bruce regretting it in Java.

@aioobe 2017-07-10 12:27:50

I think this whole answer focuses very little on OP's question of the case against checked exceptions.

@jpmc26 2017-09-27 23:41:34

I think this answer fundamentally misses the point that where the exception is thrown is very rarely close to the place you want to handle it. As a result, if you have database calls deep in your hierarchy throwing SQLException, you're forced to pollute nearly every function in your web app with throws SQLException, just so your global handler can catch it and return 500. Such mindless repetition offers no benefit whatsoever. throws declarations become meaningless noise that you must train yourself to ignore, and if you do so, you're not getting the supposed benefit.

@Basic 2017-11-24 17:12:27

@Rhubarb I don't see why you believe it's essential that I check FileNotFound, but not that I also check "DriveBusy", "OutOfHandles", "InsufficientPermission" and countless hundreds of other specific error cases which all amount to "You can't open that file"

@EricS 2018-01-26 00:49:43

@jpmc26 You're not forced to pollute anything with SQLException throws, doing so means you're not handling checked exceptions correctly. Throws clauses are part of the interface and putting implementation details in it is bad design. Whatever code is getting the SQLExceptions should, if it cannot usefully handle them, catch them and throw some other exception that conveys what that error means in terms of the domain of that function (perhaps after logging the details of this exception for debugging), or throw an unchecked exception if more appropriate.

@jpmc26 2018-01-26 01:15:49

@EricS The correct way to handle an unexpected SQLException during a web request is to let it bubble up to the global handler and cause a 500 error; no other useful action can be taken. Such global handlers are usually part of or registered with the web framework that calls out to your code. Even if you were correct, a bunch of try/catch/throw sets is even more boiler plate/pollution/repitition than a throws declaration and has the even worse additional downside of hiding the real error, making it more difficult to understand the cause of the error.

@EricS 2018-01-26 18:25:00

@jpmc26 Keeping the separation between interface and implementation clean is far more important. If there is going to be any mess it should be contained in the implementation code not leaked into the interface (i.e. throws). Your web framework ought to be able to Runtime exception you would likely want to wrap the SQLException in if it was not appropriate to handle in your code.

@jpmc26 2018-01-26 18:52:32

@EricS Wrapping something in an unchecked exception does nothing to separate the implementation from the interface. The callers still have to be prepared for exceptions to be thrown. Every line of code you write should be written under the assumption that something it calls will one day throw an exception you didn't anticipate, so it should make a best effort not to leave anything in a wrong state when that happens. Whether or not the function declaration has a throws on it or not solves no practical problems, and what you advocate makes developers less productive for no benefit.

@EricS 2018-01-26 21:35:15

@jpmc26 You seem to me missing the point of unchecked exceptions. Your function already can potentially throw an unchecked exception, so yes, something, at some level should handle that, and should be handling it already, so wrapping a SQLException that your function can not do anything useful with in a RuntimeException adds no additional overhead. But making your function throw SQLException has large impact and pollutes the interface. You also may not have control over the interface you are implementing and making it throw SQLException may not even be an option.

@jpmc26 2018-01-26 21:39:06

@EricS I'm not missing the point. I'm saying checked exceptions have no value, and all the stuff around them is useless boilerplate that doesn't actually improve productivity or quality even slightly. It doesn't actually solve any problems, including the one it promises to: forcing developers to handle them. The fact that you're suggesting eschewing checked exceptions by wrapping them with unchecked ones only strengthens my argument.

@EricS 2018-01-26 21:44:52

That's not what I'm suggesting. Checked exceptions are useful, they force the programmer to decide how to handle them in the code using the functions that throw them (but that is a different point than what we've been arguing about). Deciding that the code cannot handle them usefully and "translating" them to an unchecked exception is one of several possibilities to choose from.

@jpmc26 2018-01-26 21:45:48

@gzak 2019-04-10 23:45:21

The main problem with this answer is that it totally misrepresents Hejlsberg's actual argument against checked exceptions - the fact that it encourages bad practices is only one of the arguments, and not the most compelling if you ask me. A more accurate tl;dr would actually be the interface pollution aspect, especially in the face of future changes that might introduce new kinds of checked exceptions - then you're really in a bind, because that's a breaking change to all your callers. it is this fundamental problem that begets the bad practices

@Martin 2009-05-17 20:15:40

As folks have already stated, checked exceptions don't exist in Java bytecode. They are simply a compiler mechanism, not unlike other syntax checks. I see checked exceptions a lot like I see the compiler complaining about a redundant conditional: if(true) { a; } b;. That's helpful but I might have done this on purpose, so let me ignore your warnings.

The fact of the matter is, you aren't going to be able to force every programmer to "do the right thing" if you enforce checked exceptions and everyone else is now collateral damage who just hates you for the rule you made.

Fix the bad programs out there! Don't try to fix the language to not allow them! For most folks, "doing something about an exception" is really just telling the user about it. I can tell the user about an unchecked exception just as well, so keep your checked exception classes out of my API.

@Holger 2018-01-29 08:14:43

Right, I just wanted to emphasize the difference between unreachable code (that generates an error) and conditionals with a predictable outcome. I’ll remove this comment later.

@Vlasec 2017-10-09 14:39:08

One important thing nobody mentioned is how it interferes with interfaces and lambda expressions.

Let's say you define a MyAppException extends Exception. It is the top level exception inherited by all exceptions thrown by your application. Every method declares throws MyAppException which is a bit of nuissance, but manageable. An exception handler logs exception and notifies the user somehow.

All looks OK until you want to implement some interface that is not yours. Obviously it doesn't declare intention to throw MyApException, so compiler doesn't allow you to throw the exception from there.

However, if your exception extends RuntimeException, there will be no problem with interfaces. You can voluntarily mention the exception in JavaDoc if you wish. But other than that it just silently bubbless through anything, to be caught in your exception handling layer.

@Luke Quinane 2009-04-01 03:25:32


Firstly, checked exceptions decrease the "signal-to-noise ratio" for the code. Anders Hejlsberg also talks about imperative vs declarative programming which is a similar concept. Anyway consider the following code snippets:

Update UI from non UI-thread in Java:

try {  
    // Run the update code on the Swing thread  
    SwingUtilities.invokeAndWait(() -> {  
        try {
            // Update UI value from the file system data  
            FileUtility f = new FileUtility();  
        } catch (IOException e) {  
            throw new UncheckedIOException(e);
} catch (InterruptedException ex) {  
    throw new IllegalStateException("Interrupted updating UI", ex);  
} catch (InvocationTargetException ex) {
    throw new IllegalStateException("Invocation target exception updating UI", ex);

Update UI from non UI-thread in C#:

private void UpdateValue()  
   // Ensure the update happens on the UI thread  
   if (InvokeRequired)  
       Invoke(new MethodInvoker(UpdateValue));  
       // Update UI value from the file system data  
       FileUtility f = new FileUtility();  
       uiComponent.Value = f.ReadSomething();  

Which seems a lot clearer to me. When you start to do more and more UI work in Swing checked exceptions start to become really annoying and useless.

Jail Break

To implement even the most basic of implementations, such as Java's List interface, checked exceptions as a tool for design by contract fall down. Consider a list that is backed by a database or a filesystem or any other implementation that throws a checked exception. The only possible implementation is to catch the checked exception and rethrow it as an unchecked exception:

public void clear()  
   catch (CheckedBackingImplException ex)  
       throw new IllegalStateException("Error clearing underlying list.", ex);  

And now you have to ask what is the point of all that code? The checked exceptions just add noise, the exception has been caught but not handled and design by contract (in terms of checked exceptions) has broken down.


  • Catching exceptions is different to handling them.
  • Checked exceptions add noise to the code.
  • Exception handling works well in C# without them.

I blogged about this previously.

@TofuBeer 2009-04-01 03:46:50

Update UI from non UI-thread in C#: - what if an exception occurs?

@Luke Quinane 2009-04-01 04:25:09

In the example both Java and C# are just letting the exceptions propagate up without handling them (Java via IllegalStateException). The difference is that you may want to handle a FileNotFoundException but its unlikely that handling InvocationTargetException or InterruptedException will be useful.

@TofuBeer 2009-04-01 15:36:07

And in the C# way how do I know that the I/O exception can occur? Also I would never throw an exception from run... I consider that abusing exception handling. Sorry but for that part of your code I just can see your side of it yet.

@Luke Quinane 2009-04-01 23:58:11

The known exceptions are put into the C# "Javadoc"; good APIs will define all known exceptions this way. You may be able to catch a FileNotFound inside run() but some exceptions can't be handled there. Catching them inside run() but not properly handling isn't good. Perhaps I'm misunderstanding.

@TofuBeer 2009-04-02 16:38:50

We are getting there :-) So with each new release of an API you have to comb through all your calls and look for any new exceptions that might happen? The can easily happen with internal to a company APIs since they don't have to worry about backwards compatibility.

@neo2862 2009-11-15 09:53:09

Did you mean decrease the signal-to-noise ratio?

@Mister Smith 2011-08-23 06:36:03

You are mixing things here. C# is more recent than Java and has a simpler design for the every day tasks. You can achieve the same clean design in Java, adding your own libraries or utilities.

@Francois Bourgeois 2013-04-04 10:52:20

@TofuBeer Isn't being forced to update your code after the interface of an underlaying API changed a good thing? If you had had only unchecked exceptions there, you'd have ended up with a broken/incomplete program without knowing it.

@aioobe 2017-07-11 04:39:39

I think this answer hits the head on the nail. "Look how crufty the Java code becomes. Java is already verbose!" A few remarks though: Just rethrowing the IOExceptions and InterruptedExceptions and crash and burn like that is a bad idea. In 9 cases out of 10, there's a more responsible way of dealing with the situation than to sweep it under the carpet. Where to deal with it? You're doing UI stuff here, so here's the right place to do it! If you do this improvement in both snippets, the C# version starts to approach the Java version. ...

@aioobe 2017-07-11 04:44:26

... So, in this case I'd actually claim that the checked exceptions in fact helped you write more responsible code. The InvocationTargetException is nothing but unfortunate. It should clearly have been a RuntimeException. It's from the early days of Java, and no one had experienced the annoyance checked exceptions had brought us today. I would however like to emphasize that this is an API design issue, rather than an issue with checked exceptions as a language feature. Is it hard to get right? Sure, sometimes. But not so hard that a good feature like this should be tossed out the window.

@Piotr Sobczyk 2011-10-28 22:01:38

The problem

The worst problem I see with exception handling mechanism is that it introduces code duplication in a big scale! Let's be honest: In most of projects in 95% of the time all that developers really need to do with exception is to communicate it somehow to the user (and, in some cases, to the development team as well, e.g. by sending an e-mail with the stack trace). So usually the same line/block of code is used in every place the exception is handled.

Let's assume that we do simple logging in each catch block for some type of checked exception:

}catch(CheckedException e){

If it's a common exception there may be even several hundreds of such try-catch blocks in a larger codebase. Now let's assume that we need to introduce popup dialog based exception handling instead of console logging or start to additionally send an e-mail to the development team.

Wait a moment... are we really going to edit all of that several hundreds of locations in the code?! You get my point :-).

The solution

What we did to adress that issue was introducing the concept of exception handlers (to which I'll further refer as EH's) to centralize exception handling. To every class that needs to hande exceptions an instance of exception handler is injected by our Dependency Injection framework. So the typical pattern of exception handling now looks like this:

}catch(CheckedException e){

Now to customize our exception handling we only need to change the code in a single place (EH code).

Of course for more complex cases we can implement several subclasses of EHs and leverage features that our DI framework provides us. By changing our DI framework configuration we can easily switch EH implementation globally or provide specific implementations of EH to classes with special exception handling needs (for example using Guice @Named annotation).

That way we can differentiate exception handling behaviour in development and release version of application (eg. development - logging the error and halting the application, prod - logging the error with more details and letting the application continue its execution) with no effort.

Last one thing

Last but not least, it may seem that the same kind of centralisation can be obtained by just passing our exceptions "up" until they arrive to some top level exception handling class. But that leads to cluttering of code and signatures of our methods and introduces maintenance problems mentioned by others in this thread.

@ceving 2013-03-12 15:12:10

Exceptions are invented to do something useful with them. Writing them into a log file or rendering a pretty window is not useful, because the original problem does not get solved by this. Doing something useful requires trying a different solution strategy. Examples: If I am not able to get my data from server A I try it on server B. Or if algorithm A produces a heap overflow I try algorithm B which is much slower but might succeed.

@Piotr Sobczyk 2013-03-13 18:51:41

@ceving Yeah, it's all good and true in theory. But now let's get back to practice word. Please answer really honestly how often you do it in your real-word project? What part of catch blocks in this real project do something really "useful" with exceptins? 10% would be good. Usual problems that generate exceptions are like trying to read configuration from file that doesn't exist, OutOfMemoryErrors, NullPointerExceptions, database constraint integrity errors etc, etc. Are you really trying to gracefully recover from all of them? I don't believe you :). Often there is just no way to recover.

@supercat 2013-03-15 19:58:28

@PiotrSobczyk: If a program takes some action as a result of a suer request, and the operation fails in some fashion which hasn't damaged anything in the system state, notifying the user that the operation couldn't be completed is a perfectly useful way of handling the situation. The biggest failing of exceptions in C# and .net is that there's no consistent way to ascertain whether anything in the system state might have gotten damaged.

@Thomas W 2014-06-02 02:50:44

Correct, @PiotrSobczyk. Most often, the only correct action to take in response to an exception is to rollback the transaction & return an error response. Ideas of "solving exception" imply knowledge & authority we don't (and shouldn't) have, and violate encapsulation. If our application is not a DB, we shouldn't try to fix the DB. Failing cleanly & avoiding writing erroneous data, ceving, is useful enough.

@Eponymous 2014-10-10 13:23:01

@PiotrSobczyk Yesterday, I dealt with a "could not read object" exception (which will only come about because the underlying database has been updated before the software - which should never happen but is a possibility due to human error) by failing over to a historical version of the database guaranteed to point to an old version of the object.

@Boann 2016-04-14 15:09:10

This isn't an argument against the pure concept of checked exceptions, but the class hierarchy Java uses for them is a freak show. We always call the things simply "exceptions" – which is correct, because the language specification calls them that too – but how is an exception named and represented in the type system?

By the class Exception one imagines? Well no, because Exceptions are exceptions, and likewise exceptions are Exceptions, except for those exceptions that are not Exceptions, because other exceptions are actually Errors, which are the other kind of exception, a kind of extra-exceptional exception that should never happen except when it does, and which you should never catch except sometimes you have to. Except that's not all because you can also define other exceptions that are neither Exceptions nor Errors but merely Throwable exceptions.

Which of these are the "checked" exceptions? Throwables are checked exceptions, except if they're also Errors, which are unchecked exceptions, and then there's the Exceptions, which are also Throwables and are the main type of checked exception, except there's one exception to that too, which is that if they are also RuntimeExceptions, because that's the other kind of unchecked exception.

What are RuntimeExceptions for? Well just like the name implies, they're exceptions, like all Exceptions, and they happen at run-time, like all exceptions actually, except that RuntimeExceptions are exceptional compared to other run-time Exceptions because they aren't supposed to happen except when you make some silly error, although RuntimeExceptions are never Errors, so they're for things that are exceptionally erroneous but which aren't actually Errors. Except for RuntimeErrorException, which really is a RuntimeException for Errors. But aren't all exceptions supposed to represent erroneous circumstances anyway? Yes, all of them. Except for ThreadDeath, an exceptionally unexceptional exception, as the documentation explains that it's a "normal occurrence" and that that's why they made it a type of Error.

Anyway, since we're dividing all exceptions down the middle into Errors (which are for exceptional execution exceptions, so unchecked) and Exceptions (which are for less exceptional execution errors, so checked except when they're not), we now need two different kinds of each of several exceptions. So we need IllegalAccessError and IllegalAccessException, and InstantiationError and InstantiationException, and NoSuchFieldError and NoSuchFieldException, and NoSuchMethodError and NoSuchMethodException, and ZipError and ZipException.

Except that even when an exception is checked, there are always (fairly easy) ways to cheat the compiler and throw it without it being checked. If you do you that you may get an UndeclaredThrowableException, except in other cases, where it could throw up as an UnexpectedException, or an UnknownException (which is unrelated to UnknownError, which is only for "serious exceptions"), or an ExecutionException, or an InvocationTargetException, or an ExceptionInInitializerError.

Oh, and we mustn't forget Java 8's snazzy new UncheckedIOException, which is a RuntimeException exception designed to let you throw the exception checking concept out the window by wrapping checked IOException exceptions caused by I/O errors (which don't cause IOError exceptions, although that exists too) that are exceptionally difficult to handle and so you need them to not be checked.

Thanks Java!

@CptBartender 2016-06-28 07:26:27

As far as I can say, this answer only says "Java's exceptions are a mess" in a full of irony, arguably funny way. What it seems not to do is explain why programmers tend to avoid trying to understand how these things are supposed to work. Also, in real-life cases (at least the ones I had a chance to deal with), if the programmers don't deliberately try to make their lives harder, the exceptions are nowhere near as complicated as you've described.

@Aleksandr Dubinsky 2015-07-16 02:03:04

The programmer needs to know all of the exceptions that a method may throw, in order to use it correctly. So, beating him over the head with just some of the exceptions does not necessarily help a careless programmer avoid errors.

The slim benefit is outweighed by the burdensome cost (especially in larger, less flexible code bases where constantly modifying the interface signatures is not practical).

Static analysis can be nice, but truly reliable static analysis often inflexibly demands strict work from the programmer. There is a cost-benefit calculation, and the bar needs to be set high for a check that leads to a compile time error. It would be more helpful if the IDE took on the role of communicating which exceptions a method may throw (including which are unavoidable). Although perhaps it would not be as reliable without forced exception declarations, most exceptions would still be declared in documentation, and the reliability of an IDE warning is not so crucial.

@bobince 2009-03-05 10:59:39

The thing about checked exceptions is that they are not really exceptions by the usual understanding of the concept. Instead, they are API alternative return values.

The whole idea of exceptions is that an error thrown somewhere way down the call chain can bubble up and be handled by code somewhere further up, without the intervening code having to worry about it. Checked exceptions, on the other hand, require every level of code between the thrower and the catcher to declare they know about all forms of exception that can go through them. This is really little different in practice to if checked exceptions were simply special return values which the caller had to check for. eg.[pseudocode]:

public [int or IOException] writeToStream(OutputStream stream) {
    [void or IOException] a= stream.write(mybytes);
    if (a instanceof IOException)
        return a;
    return mybytes.length;

Since Java can't do alternative return values, or simple inline tuples as return values, checked exceptions are are a reasonable response.

The problem is that a lot of code, including great swathes of the standard library, misuse checked exceptions for real exceptional conditions that you might very well want to catch several levels up. Why is IOException not a RuntimeException? In every other language I can let an IO exception happen, and if I do nothing to handle it, my application will stop and I'll get a handy stack trace to look at. This is the best thing that can happen.

Maybe two methods up from the example you want to catch all IOExceptions from the whole writing-to-stream process, abort the process and jump into the error reporting code; in Java you can't do that without adding ‘throws IOException’ at every call level, even levels that themselves do no IO. Such methods should not need to know about the exception handling; having to add exceptions to their signatures:

  1. unnecessarily increases coupling;
  2. makes interface signatures very brittle to change;
  3. makes the code less readable;
  4. is so annoying that it the common programmer reaction is to defeat the system by doing something horrible like ‘throws Exception’, ‘catch (Exception e) {}’, or wrapping everything in a RuntimeException (which makes debugging harder).

And then there's plenty of just ridiculous library exceptions like:

try {
} catch (ProtocolException e) {
    throw new CanNeverHappenException("oh dear!");

When you have to clutter up your code with ludicrous crud like this, it is no wonder checked exceptions receive a bunch of hate, even though really this is just simple poor API design.

Another particular bad effect is on Inversion of Control, where component A supplies a callback to generic component B. Component A wants to be able to let an exception throw from its callback back to the place where it called component B, but it can't because that would change the callback interface which is fixed by B. A can only do it by wrapping the real exception in a RuntimeException, which is yet more exception-handling boilerplate to write.

Checked exceptions as implemented in Java and its standard library mean boilerplate, boilerplate, boilerplate. In an already verbose language this is not a win.

@Esko Luontola 2009-03-06 11:25:41

In your code example, it would be best to chain the exceptions so that the original cause can be found when reading the logs: throw CanNeverHappenException(e);

@Mister Smith 2011-08-22 11:33:48

I disagree. Exceptions, checked or not, are exceptional conditions. Example: a method that retrieves an object via HTTP. The return value is else the object or nothing, all the things that can go bad are exceptional. Treating them as return values as it is done in C only leads to confusion and poor design.

@bobince 2011-08-22 13:23:37

@Mister: What I'm saying is that checked exceptions as implemented in Java behave, in practice, more like return values as in C than they do the traditional ‘exceptions’ we might recognise from C++ and other pre-Java languages. And that IMO this does indeed lead to confusion and poor design.

@charstar 2011-12-03 09:26:55

Agree that the standard libraries misuse of checked exceptions definitely added to the confusion and bad catching behavior. And, often it's just from poor documentation, e.g. a tear down method like disconnect() that throws IOException when "some other I/O error occurs". Well, I was disconnecting! Am I'm leaking a handle or other resource? Do I need to retry? Without knowing why it happened, I can't derive the action I should take and so I have to guess whether I should just swallow it, retry, or bail.

@Zsolt Török 2011-12-20 12:38:03

+1 for "API alternative return values". Interesting way of looking at checked exceptions.

@supercat 2012-03-26 19:01:45

I like the "alternative return values" notion. Some exception types aren't likely going to be useful to anyone but the immediate caller, and even if the caller can't handle the exception, the caller should wrap it in such a way that its caller will know it was thrown from a nested routine). I think the big problem with checked exception ties in with a bigger problem of exceptions in general: way too many different things are all wrapped up in an exception's type. The fact that Java distinguishes "checked versus unchecked" exceptions based upon the exception type makes things worse, but...

@supercat 2012-03-26 19:08:44 not the root problem. What might have been helpful would have been to have a reliable means for a "catch" statement to indicate that it only wants to catch exceptions for which the immediate called routine wants to "take credit", and a convenient means for routines to indicate when they want to take credit for exceptions thrown by nested routines (or even their own, for that matter). Checked exceptions could provide that, sort of, if there were a convenient way of indicating declaratively that exceptions should be wrapped, without having to write imperative code to do it.

@supercat 2012-03-26 19:12:25

In many ways, though, what's needed is a standard "aggregate exception" type, with distinct "catch" and "resolve" statements; a "catch" statement should run code if any of its conditions matches an aggregate exception, but an aggregate exception should continue up the call stack until all parts are "resolved". No such feature exists in Java or .net, but I would think such a feature should be a part of new frameworks that are developed.

@jpmc26 2017-09-27 23:20:42

@MisterSmith In programming, "exceptional conditions" do not mean conditions that we can ignore. It means conditions that we know, despite our best efforts, will eventually happen one day, but we don't have a good way of addressing them. Open Office cannot reasonably do anything about a disk being unplugged in the middle of saving a file. An API can't help it if your code has a bug and passes in an illegal null. It makes very little sense to impose strict requirements on handling situations our code cannot effectively handle; the "best way" will be very context dependent.

@jpmc26 2017-09-27 23:29:09

I think conceptually the idea of exceptions as an alternative return value makes sense, but I'd take it even further. It's an alternative return mechanism. Exceptions can pass the same value through multiple entries in the function call stack, silently bypassing swaths of code in the process. This is not something the normal return mechanism can do, and it is the reason that exceptions allow us to achieve decoupling. Bottom line, exceptions are flow control, contrary to the platitude. They are a more limited, more manageable (because of greater guarantees about state) GOTO.

@Shelby Moore III 2018-05-21 10:25:11

Unlike error return values, exceptions don’t have to be checked after every function call. The try-catch block can group functions so that error handling is not interleaved with the algorithm. Thus it’s not correct to equate checked exceptions with return values.

@Boann 2013-11-27 02:03:24

I know this is an old question but I've spent a while wrestling with checked exceptions and I've something to add. Please forgive me for the length of it!

My main beef with checked exceptions is that they ruin polymorphism. It's impossible to make them play nicely with polymorphic interfaces.

Take the good ol' Java List interface. We have common in-memory implementations like ArrayList and LinkedList. We also have the the skeletal class AbstractList which makes it easy to design new types of list. For a read-only list we need to implement only two methods: size() and get(int index).

This example WidgetList class reads some fixed-size objects of type Widget (not shown) from a file:

class WidgetList extends AbstractList<Widget> {
    private static final int SIZE_OF_WIDGET = 100;
    private final RandomAccessFile file;

    public WidgetList(RandomAccessFile file) {
        this.file = file;

    public int size() {
        return (int)(file.length() / SIZE_OF_WIDGET);

    public Widget get(int index) { * SIZE_OF_WIDGET);
        byte[] data = new byte[SIZE_OF_WIDGET];;
        return new Widget(data);

By exposing the Widgets using the familiar List interface, you can retrieve items (list.get(123)) or iterate a list (for (Widget w : list) ...) without needing to know about WidgetList itself. One can pass this list to any standard methods that use generic lists, or wrap it in a Collections.synchronizedList. Code that uses it need neither know nor care whether the "Widgets" are made up on the spot, come from an array, or are read from a file, or a database, or from across the network, or from a future subspace relay. It will still work correctly because the List interface is correctly implemented.

Except it isn't. The above class doesn't compile because the file access methods may throw an IOException, a checked exception which you have to "catch or specify". You can't specify it as thrown -- the compiler won't let you because that would violate the contract of the List interface. And there is no useful way that WidgetList itself can handle the exception (as I'll expound on later).

Apparently the only thing to do is catch and rethrow checked exceptions as some unchecked exception:

public int size() {
    try {
        return (int)(file.length() / SIZE_OF_WIDGET);
    } catch (IOException e) {
        throw new WidgetListException(e);

public static class WidgetListException extends RuntimeException {
    public WidgetListException(Throwable cause) {

((Edit: Java 8 has added an UncheckedIOException class for exactly this case: for catching and rethrowing IOExceptions across polymorphic method boundaries. Kind of proves my point!))

So checked exceptions simply don't work in cases like this. You can't throw them. Ditto for a clever Map backed by a database, or an implementation of java.util.Random connected to a quantum entropy source via a COM port. As soon as you try to do anything novel with the implementation of a polymorphic interface, the concept of checked exceptions fails. But checked exceptions are so insidious that they still won't leave you in peace, because you still have to catch and rethrow any from lower-level methods, cluttering the code and cluttering the stack trace.

I find that the ubiquitous Runnable interface is often backed into this corner, if it calls something which throws checked exceptions. It can't throw the exception as is, so all it can do is clutter the code by catching and rethrowing as a RuntimeException.

Actually, you can throw undeclared checked exceptions if you resort to hacks. The JVM, at run time, doesn't care about checked exception rules, so we need to fool only the compiler. The easiest way to do this is to abuse generics. This is my method for it (class name shown because (before Java 8) it's required in the calling syntax for the generic method):

class Util {
     * Throws any {@link Throwable} without needing to declare it in the
     * method's {@code throws} clause.
     * <p>When calling, it is suggested to prepend this method by the
     * {@code throw} keyword. This tells the compiler about the control flow,
     * about reachable and unreachable code. (For example, you don't need to
     * specify a method return value when throwing an exception.) To support
     * this, this method has a return type of {@link RuntimeException},
     * although it never returns anything.
     * @param t the {@code Throwable} to throw
     * @return nothing; this method never returns normally
     * @throws Throwable that was provided to the method
     * @throws NullPointerException if {@code t} is {@code null}
    public static RuntimeException sneakyThrow(Throwable t) {
        return Util.<RuntimeException>sneakyThrow1(t);

    private static <T extends Throwable> RuntimeException sneakyThrow1(
            Throwable t) throws T {
        throw (T)t;

Hurray! Using this we can throw a checked exception any depth up the stack without declaring it, without wrapping it in a RuntimeException, and without cluttering the stack trace! Using the "WidgetList" example again:

public int size() {
    try {
        return (int)(file.length() / SIZE_OF_WIDGET);
    } catch (IOException e) {
        throw sneakyThrow(e);

Unfortunately, the final insult of checked exceptions is that the compiler refuses to allow you to catch a checked exception if, in its flawed opinion, it could not have been thrown. (Unchecked exceptions do not have this rule.) To catch the sneakily thrown exception we have to do this:

try {
} catch (Throwable t) { // catch everything
    if (t instanceof IOException) {
        // handle it
    } else {
        // didn't want to catch this one; let it go
        throw t;

That is a bit awkward, but on the plus side, it is still slightly simpler than the code for extracting a checked exception that was wrapped in a RuntimeException.

Happily, the throw t; statement is legal here, even though the type of t is checked, thanks to a rule added in Java 7 about rethrowing caught exceptions.

When checked exceptions meet polymorphism, the opposite case is also a problem: when a method is spec'd as potentially throwing a checked exception, but an overridden implementation doesn't. For example, the abstract class OutputStream's write methods all specify throws IOException. ByteArrayOutputStream is a subclass that writes to an in-memory array instead of a true I/O source. Its overridden write methods cannot cause IOExceptions, so they have no throws clause, and you can call them without worrying about the catch-or-specify requirement.

Except not always. Suppose that Widget has a method for saving it out to a stream:

public void writeTo(OutputStream out) throws IOException;

Declaring this method to accept a plain OutputStream is the right thing to do, so it can be used polymorphically with all kinds of outputs: files, databases, the network, and so on. And in-memory arrays. With an in-memory array, however, there is a spurious requirement to handle an exception that can't actually happen:

ByteArrayOutputStream out = new ByteArrayOutputStream();
try {
} catch (IOException e) {
    // can't happen (although we shouldn't ignore it if it does)
    throw new RuntimeException(e);

As usual, checked exceptions get in the way. If your variables are declared as a base type that has more open-ended exception requirements, you have to add handlers for those exceptions even if you know they won't occur in your application.

But wait, checked exceptions are actually so annoying, that they won't even let you do the reverse! Imagine you currently catch any IOException thrown by write calls on an OutputStream, but you want to change the variable's declared type to a ByteArrayOutputStream, the compiler will berate you for trying to catch a checked exception that it says cannot be thrown.

That rule causes some absurd problems. For example, one of the three write methods of OutputStream is not overridden by ByteArrayOutputStream. Specifically, write(byte[] data) is a convenience method that writes the full array by calling write(byte[] data, int offset, int length) with an offset of 0 and the length of the array. ByteArrayOutputStream overrides the three-argument method but inherits the one-argument convenience method as-is. The inherited method does exactly the right thing, but it includes an unwanted throws clause. That was perhaps an oversight in the design of ByteArrayOutputStream, but they can never fix it because it would break source compatibility with any code that does catch the exception -- the exception that has never, is never, and never will be thrown!

That rule is annoying during editing and debugging too. E.g., sometimes I'll comment out a method call temporarily, and if it could have thrown a checked exception, the compiler will now complain about the existence of the local try and catch blocks. So I have to comment those out too, and now when editing the code within, the IDE will indent to the wrong level because the { and } are commented out. Gah! It's a small complaint but it seems like the only thing checked exceptions ever do is cause trouble.

I'm nearly done. My final frustration with checked exceptions is that at most call sites, there's nothing useful you can do with them. Ideally when something goes wrong we'd have a competent application-specific handler that can inform the user of the problem and/or end or retry the operation as appropriate. Only a handler high up the stack can do this because it's the only one that knows the overall goal.

Instead we get the following idiom, which is rampant as a way to shut the compiler up:

try {
} catch (SomeStupidExceptionOmgWhoCares e) {

In a GUI or automated program the printed message won't be seen. Worse, it plows on with the rest of the code after the exception. Is the exception not actually an error? Then don't print it. Otherwise, something else is going to blow up in a moment, by which time the original exception object will be gone. This idiom is no better than BASIC's On Error Resume Next or PHP's error_reporting(0);.

Calling some kind of logger class is not much better:

try {
} catch (SomethingWeird e) {

That is just as lazy as e.printStackTrace(); and still plows on with code in an indeterminate state. Plus, the choice of a particular logging system or other handler is application-specific, so this hurts code reuse.

But wait! There is an easy and universal way to find the application-specific handler. It's higher up the call stack (or it is set as the Thread's uncaught exception handler). So in most places, all you need to do is throw the exception higher up the stack. E.g., throw e;. Checked exceptions just get in the way.

I'm sure checked exceptions sounded like a good idea when the language was designed, but in practice I've found them to be all bother and no benefit.

@TofuBeer 2013-11-27 03:20:47

For your size method with the WidgetList, I would cache the size in a variable and set it in the constructor. The constructor is free to throw an exception. This won't work if the file changes while using the WidgetList though, which would probably be bad if it did.

@TofuBeer 2013-11-27 03:22:06

SomeStupidExceptionOmgWhoCares well someone cared enough to throw it. So either it never should have been thrown (bad design) or you should really handle it. The same is true of the bad implementation of a pre-1.0 class (the byte array output stream) where the design was, unfortunately bad.

@supercat 2013-12-26 03:13:43

The proper idiom would have been a directive that would catch any specified exceptions thrown by nested subroutine calls and rethrow them wrapped in a RuntimeException. Note that a routine could simultaneously be declared as throws IOException and yet also specify that any IOException thrown from a nested call should be considered unexpected and wrapped.

@aikeru 2014-03-15 04:38:55

I'm a professional C# developer with some Java experience who stumbled on this post. I'm baffled as to why anyone would support this bizarre behavior. In .NET if I want to catch a specific type of exception, I can catch that. If I want to just let it get thrown up the stack, there's nothing to do. I wish Java wasn't so quirky. :)

@maaartinus 2017-05-25 04:03:23

Concerning "sometimes I'll comment out a method call temporarily" - I learnt to use if (false) for this. It avoids the throw clause problem and the warning helps me to navigate back faster. +++ That said, I agree with everything you wrote. Checked exceptions have some value, but this value is negligible when compared to their cost. Nearly always they just get in the way.

@Kurt Schelfthout 2009-03-05 12:23:02

Indeed, checked exceptions on the one hand increase robustness and correctness of your program (you're forced to make correct declarations of your interfaces -the exceptions a method throws are basically a special return type). On the other hand you face the problem that, since exceptions "bubble up", very often you need to change a whole lot of methods (all the callers, and the callers of the callers, and so on) when you change the exceptions one method throws.

Checked exceptions in Java do not solve the latter problem; C# and VB.NET throw out the baby with the bathwater.

A nice approach that takes the middle road is described in this OOPSLA 2005 paper (or the related technical report.)

In short, it allows you to say: method g(x) throws like f(x), which means that g throws all the exceptions f throws. Voila, checked exceptions without the cascading changes problem.

Although it is an academic paper, I'd encourage you to read (parts of) it, as it does a good job of explaining what the benefits and downsides of checked exceptions are.

@Mister Smith 2011-08-23 06:52:43

Despite having read the whole page, I still can't find a single reasonable argument against checked exceptions. Most people are instead talking about poor API design, either at some Java classes or at their own classes.

The only scenario where this feature may be annoying is prototiping. This could be solved by adding some mechanism to the language (for instance, some @supresscheckedexceptions annotation). But for regular programming, I think checked exceptions are a good thing.

@Thomas W 2014-06-02 03:02:25

Best-practice "throw early, catch late" is incompatible with checked exception's insistence that they be handled immediately. It also prevents FP functional programming approaches. See:…

@Mister Smith 2014-06-02 15:15:49

There's no insistence on being handled immediately, only on being handled. You can declare that your method throws some exceptions and catch them as late as you want. And you can throw as early as you want as well.

@Thomas W 2014-06-02 21:59:32

Exponential expansion through the call tree is effectively an insistence on being handled immediately. This could have been could worthwhile if applied solely to contingencies, which are predictable & potentially recoverable, but 'checked' behavior was erroneously widened to a broad range of unpredictable & unrecoverable failures. 'File open' or 'connect JDBC' are reasonable to require checked -- most other IOException, SQLException, RemoteException not so. This was a major error in Java library design. See my answer & a basic primer on exception-handling.

@Mister Smith 2014-06-03 15:31:38

@ThomasW I've read your link and your answer, and I still I disagree. Checked exceptions are not bad in general, although I agree in that some particular exceptions in the API should have been made unchecked.

@Mister Smith 2014-06-03 15:32:16

@ThomasW And the principle of "throw early, catch late" is highly debatable. The throw early part is ok, but you can't default to catching late always. It depends. For instance, if I'm coding a class that interfaces with a WS, I might run into, lest say, IOException, ParsingException, RemoteException, PermissionException and so on. Here we can catch early to handle them in this layer and either return null/false/-1/whatever or envelope them in a custom WSException (of course checked, otherwise client classes might forget to handle them).

@Thomas W 2014-06-04 02:23:26

"Catch late" is based on the level at which failure can be isolated -- most times, those are the business/ request or outbound connection/ request level. Simple & correct.

@Thomas W 2014-06-04 02:32:45

Returning null/false/-1 is incorrect practice as it mis-represents success to your client! This is a strict no-no, as it enables execution to continue with incomplete/invalid/incorrect data to either fail later (bad) or commit to the DB (worse). If parts of the business logic are genuinely optional, which you haven't stated, then a try/catch allow those to continue with a warning. Non-valid values and spreading bad data around the application are neither good nor necessary.

@Thomas W 2014-06-04 02:36:43

Best-practice exception handling is based on actually how exceptions/errors can best be correctly handled (logging, reporting, sometimes recovered). This a science, not an art.. Getting it 100% optimal & correct is actually simple & easy -- so long as we are not pushed (by mistaken library design) to "handle early". As we can see, that mainly just encourages mistaken practice.

@maaartinus 2017-12-02 16:05:22

@MisterSmith You can't ever forget to handle a WSException or any other if you catch (Exception e) on some close-to-top level. You may or may not want some special handling, but the basic principle is to handle everything. For special handling you can use try {...} catch (WSException) {...} catch (Exception e) {...}, but it's only needed if you can do something special about it (you may want to retry it, but that holds for TransactionLockTimeExceeded, too).

@Thomas W 2014-06-02 03:34:41

Checked exceptions were, in their original form, an attempt to handle contingencies rather than failures. The laudable goal was to highlight specific predictable points (unable to connect, file not found, etc) & ensure developers handled these.

What was never included in the original concept, was to force a vast range of systemic & unrecoverable failures to be declared. These failures were never correct to be declared as checked exceptions.

Failures are generally possible in code, and EJB, web & Swing/AWT containers already cater for this by providing an outermost “failed request” exception-handler. The most basic correct strategy is to rollback the transaction & return an error.

One crucial point, is that runtime & checked exceptions are functionally equivalent. There is no handling or recovery which checked exceptions can do, that runtime exceptions can’t.

The biggest argument against “checked” exceptions is that most exceptions can’t be fixed. The simple fact is, we don’t own the code/ subsystem that broke. We can’t see the implementation, we’re not responsible for it, and can’t fix it.

If our application is not a DB.. we shouldn't try and fix the DB. That would violate the principle of encapsulation.

Particularly problematic have been the areas of JDBC (SQLException) and RMI for EJB (RemoteException). Rather than identifying fixable contingencies as per the original “checked exception” concept, these forced pervasive systemic reliability issues, not actually fixable, to be widely declared.

The other severe flaw in the Java design, was that exception-handling should correctly placed at the highest possible "business" or "request" level. The principle here is "throw early, catch late". Checked exceptions do little but get in the way of this.

We have an obvious issue in Java of requiring thousands of do-nothing try-catch blocks, with a significant proportion (40%+) being miscoded. Almost none of these implement any genuine handling or reliability, but impose major coding overhead.

Lastly, "checked exceptions" are pretty much incompatible with FP functional programming.

Their insistence on "handle immediately" is at odds with both "catch late" exception-handling best practice, and any FP structure which abstracts loops/ or flow of control.

Many people talk about "handling" checked exceptions, but are talking through their hats. Continuing after a failure with null, incomplete or incorrect data to pretend success is not handling anything. It's engineering/ reliability malpractice of the lowest form.

Failing cleanly, is the most basic correct strategy for handling an exception. Rolling back the transaction, logging the error & reporting a "failure" response to the user are sound practice -- and most importantly, prevent incorrect business data being committed to the database.

Other strategies for exception-handling are "retry", "reconnect" or "skip", at the business, subsystem, or request level. All of these are general reliability strategies, and work well/ better with runtime exceptions.

Lastly, it is far preferable to fail, than to run with incorrect data. Continuing will either cause secondary errors, distant from the original cause & harder to debug; or will eventually result in erroneous data being committed. People get fired for that.


@TofuBeer 2014-06-29 16:49:24

That was a nice answer, but it doesn't address the core of my question: How do you know to catch an exception and roll back? Or are you simply saying people should catch RuntimeException at the top level of everything to ensure code doesn't crash?

@Thomas W 2014-06-30 02:24:24

@TofuBeer Your request (web) or event/action (GUI) handler essentially processes business operations, and always has a possibility of internal/infrastructure failure. Failures should be handled at the business level by rolling back -- as you say, with a comprehensible error message. Such 'reliability handler' catch clauses should generally catch 'Exception' to catch any runtime/or checked exceptions. Modality/type of failure is largely irrelevant to handling, except in the rare cases where a specific known contingency occurs & logic exists to recover from it.

@TofuBeer 2014-06-30 08:11:18

You should not catch Exception that leads to particularly horrendous code that can hide legitimate failures (such as ArrayIndexOutOfBounds) where the code things it is something else. In essense you can easily hide bugs by doing what you are suggesting.

@Thomas W 2015-06-11 23:56:50

My point is to fail properly as the general strategy. Unchecked exceptions help that as they do not force catch blocks to be interposed. Catching & error-logging can then be left to a few outermost handlers, rather than miscoded thousands of times throughout the codebase (which is actually what hides bugs). For arbitrary failures, unchecked exceptions are absolutely most correct. Contingencies -- predictable outcomes such as insufficient funds -- are the only exceptions legitimately are worth making checked.

@TofuBeer 2015-06-14 01:26:55

Thomas W, that still doesn't address the issue of how the outer layer knows what to catch though, which is the fundamental issue.That still doesn't address the issue of how the outer layer knows what to catch though, which is the fundamental issue.

@Thomas W 2015-06-15 01:27:14

My answer already above addresses this. First and foremost, 1) Outermost failure handler should catch everything. Beyond that, for specific identified sites only, 2) Specific expected contingencies can be caught and handled -- at the immediate site they are thrown. That means file not found, insufficient funds etc at the point these could be recovered from -- no higher. Principle of encapsulation means that outer layers cannot/ should not be responsible to understand/ recover from failures deep inside. Third, 3) Everything else should be thrown outwards -- unchecked if possible.

@Thomas W 2015-06-15 01:34:52

Outermost handler catches Exception, logs it, and returns a "failed" response or shows an error dialog. Very simple, not hard to define at all. The point is that every exception not immediately & locally recoverable, is an unrecoverable failure due to principle of encapsulation. If the code that's meant to know about can't recover it, then the request overall fails cleanly & properly. This is the right way to do it properly.

@TofuBeer 2015-06-17 06:00:54

very simple and very dangerous - you wind up catching things that are genuine bugs that way. Exception catches RuntimeException and RuntimeException indicates a programmer error.

@Thomas W 2015-06-17 23:23:53

Incorrect. Outermost handler's job is to fail cleanly & log errors on the 'request' boundary. Broken request fails properly, exception is reported, thread is able to continue to service next request. Such an outermost handler is a standard feature in Tomcat, AWT, Spring, EJB containers & the Java 'main' thread.

@TofuBeer 2015-06-19 04:09:49

How am I wrong? Exception catches RuntimeException. The purpose of RuntimeException is to indicate programmer errors.

@Thomas W 2015-06-25 04:23:23

Why is it dangerous to report "genuine bugs" at the request boundary or outermost handler??? I frequently work in systems integration & reliability, where correct reliability engineering is actually important, and use "unchecked exception" approaches to do so. I'm not really sure what you're actually debating -- seems like you might want to actually spend 3 months in the unchecked exception way, get a feel for it, and then perhaps we can discuss further. Thanks.

@TofuBeer 2015-06-25 18:01:06

An ArrayIndexOutOfBounds exception is an example of something that should not be caught. In terms of System integration and dealing with unknown 3rd party code then, yes, you do have to deal with unforeseen thing, but this question is about throwing them not catching them.

@maaartinus 2017-12-02 15:48:06

@TofuBeer I for sure want to catch all exceptions including AIOOBE somewhere. It's a programming error and must be reported to be fixed, but there absolutely no reason to ignore it completely. There's no danger in catching RuntimeException; on the opposite: It must be done somewhere in order to present 500 to the user and an error report to the developers. So there's an outer block like try {...} catch (RuntimeException e) {...} catch (Exception e) {...} in my code (and surely also in Spring and other frameworks).

@ses 2013-05-10 15:16:43

The good proves that Checked Exception are not needed are:

  1. A lot of framework that does some work for Java. Like Spring that wraps JDBC exception to unchecked exceptions, throwing messages to the log
  2. Lot of languages that came after java, even on top on java platform - they do not use them
  3. Checked exceptions, it is kind prediction about how the client would use the code that throws an exception. But a developer who writes this code would never know about the system and business that client of code is working in. As an example Interfcace methods that force to throw checked exception. There are 100 implementation over the system, 50 or even 90 of implementations do not throw this exception, but the client still must to catch this exception if he user reference to that interface. Those 50 or 90 implementations tend to handle those exceptions inside themself, putting exception to the log (and this is good behavior for them). What we should do with that? I would better have some background logic that would do all that job - sending message to the log. And If I, as a client of code, would feel I need handle the exception - I will do it. I may forget about it, right - but if I use TDD, all my steps are covered and I know what I want.
  4. Another example when I'm working with I/O in java, it forces me to check all exception, if file does not exists? what I should do with that? If it does not exists, the system would not go to the next step. The client of this method, would not get expected content from that file - he can handle Runtime Exception, otherwise I should first check Checked Exception, put a message to log, then throw exception up out form the method. - I would better do it automatically with RuntimeEception, that does it / lits up automatically. There is no any sense to handle it manually - I would be happy I saw an error message in the log (AOP can help with that.. something that fixes java). If, eventually, I deice that system should shows pop-up message to the end user - I will show it, not a problem.

I was happy if java would provide me with a choice what to use, when working with core libs, like I/O. Like provides two copies of same classes - one wrapped with RuntimeEception. Then we can compare what people would use. For now, though, many people would better go for some framework on top on java, or different language. Like Scala, JRuby whatever. Many just believe that SUN was right.

@supercat 2013-05-13 19:03:45

Rather than having two versions of classes, there should be a concise way of specifying none of the method calls made by a block of code are not expected to throw exceptions of certain types, and that any such exceptions should be wrapped via some specified means and rethrown (by default, create a new RuntimeException with an appropriate inner exception). It is unfortunate that it's more concise to have the outer method throws an exception from the inner method, than to have it wrap exceptions from the inner method, when the latter course of action would more often be correct.

@Rudi 2013-08-22 22:11:25

In my opinion the checked exceptions are a very fine concept. Unfortunately the most programmers who have worked together we me have another opinion so that the projects have a lot of wrong used exception handling. I have seen that the most programmers create one (only one) exception class, a subclass of RuntimeException. That contains a message, sometimes a multi language key. I have no chance to argument against this. I have the impression that I talk to a wall when I explain them what anti patterns are, what a contracts of a methods are... I'm a little bit disappointed.

But today it has become obvious that the concept to have a general runtime exception for everything is an anti pattern. They have used it for a check of a user input. The exception is thrown so that a user dialogue can make an error message out of it. But not every caller of the method is a dialogue! By throwing the runtime exception the contract of the method was changed but not declared, because it was not a checked exception.

Hopefully they have learned something today and will make their checks (which are useful and necessary) at another place. Using only checked exception couldn't solve the problem but the checked exception would signal to the programmer that he implements something wrong.

@Daniel A.A. Pelsmaeker 2013-05-12 00:49:00

Exception categories

When talking about exceptions I always refer back to Eric Lippert's Vexing exceptions blog article. He places exceptions into these categories:

  • Fatal - These exceptions are not your fault: you cannot prevent then, and you cannot sensibly handle them. For example, OutOfMemoryError or ThreadAbortException.
  • Boneheaded - These exceptions are your fault: you should have prevented them, and they represent bugs in your code. For example, ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException, NullPointerException or any IllegalArgumentException.
  • Vexing - These exceptions are not exceptional, not your fault, you cannot prevent them, but you'll have to deal with them. They are often the result of an unfortunate design decision, such as throwing NumberFormatException from Integer.parseInt instead of providing an Integer.tryParseInt method that returns a boolean false on parse failure.
  • Exogenous - These exceptions are usually exceptional, not your fault, you cannot (reasonably) prevent them, but you must handle them. For example, FileNotFoundException.

An API user:

  • must not handle fatal or boneheaded exceptions.
  • should handle vexing exceptions, but they should not occur in an ideal API.
  • must handle exogenous exceptions.

Checked exceptions

The fact that the API user must handle a particular exception is part of the method's contract between the caller and the callee. The contract specifies, among other things: the number and types of arguments the callee expects, the type of return value the caller can expect, and the exceptions the caller is expected to handle.

Since vexing exceptions should not exist in an API, only these exogenous exceptions must be checked exceptions to be part of the method's contract. Relatively few exceptions are exogenous, so any API should have relatively few checked exceptions.

A checked exception is an exception that must be handled. Handling an exception can be as simple as swallowing it. There! The exception is handled. Period. If the developer wants to handle it that way, fine. But he can't ignore the exception, and has been warned.

API problems

But any API that has checked vexing and fatal exceptions (e.g. the JCL) will put unnecessary strain on the API users. Such exceptions have to be handled, but either the exception is so common that it should not have been an exception in the first place, or nothing can be done when handling it. And this causes Java developers to hate checked exceptions.

Also, many APIs don't have a proper exception class hierarchy, causing all kinds of non-exogenous exception causes to be represented by a single checked exception class (e.g. IOException). And this also causes Java developers to hate checked exceptions.


Exogenous exceptions are those that are not your fault, could not have been prevented, and which should be handled. These form a small subset of all the exceptions that can get thrown. APIs should only have checked exogenous exceptions, and all other exceptions unchecked. This will make better APIs, put less strain on the API user, and therefore reduce the need to catch all, swallow or rethrow unchecked exceptions.

So don't hate Java and its checked exceptions. Instead, hate the APIs that overuse checked exceptions.

@TofuBeer 2013-05-12 17:02:31

And misuse them by not having a hierarchy.

@Thomas W 2014-06-02 02:45:18

FileNotFound and establishing a JDBC/network connection are contingencies and correct to be checked exceptions, as these are predictable and (possible) recoverable. Most other IOExceptions, SQLExceptions, RemoteException etc are unpredictable & unrecoverable failures, and should have been runtime exceptions. Due to mistaken Java library design, we have all been lumped with this mistake & are now mostly using Spring & Hibernate (who got their design right).

@maaartinus 2017-12-02 15:19:08

You usually should handle boneheaded exceptions, though you may not want to call it "handling". For example, in a web server, I log them and show 500 to the user. As the exception is unexpected, there's about all I can do before the bug fix.

@Piotr Sobczyk 2011-12-31 09:48:25

This article is the best piece of text on exception handling in Java I have ever read.

It favours unchecked over checked exceptions but this choice is explained very thouroughly and based on strong arguments.

I don't want to cite too much of the article content here (it's best to read it as a whole) but it covers most of arguments of unchecked exceptions advocates from this thread. Especially this argument (which seems to be quite popular) is covered:

Take the case when the exception was thrown somewhere at the bottom of the API layers and just bubbled up because nobody knew it was even possible for this error to occur, this even though it was a type of error that was very plausible when the calling code threw it (FileNotFoundException for example as opposed to VogonsTrashingEarthExcept... in which case it would not matter if we handle it or not since there is nothing left to handle it with).

The author "responses":

It is absolutely incorrect to assume that all runtime exceptions should not be caught and allowed to propagate to the very "top" of the application. (...) For every exceptional condition that is required to be handled distinctly - by the system/business requirements - programmers must decide where to catch it and what to do once the condition is caught. This must be done strictly according to the actual needs of the application, not based on a compiler alert. All other errors must be allowed to freely propagate to the topmost handler where they would be logged and a graceful (perhaps, termination) action will be taken.

And the main thought or article is:

When it comes to error handling in software, the only safe and correct assumption that may ever be made is that a failure may occur in absolutely every subroutine or module that exists!

So if "nobody knew it was even possible for this error to occur" there is something wrong with that project. Such exception should be handled by at least the most generic exception handler (e.g. the one that handles all Exceptions not handled by more specific handlers) as author suggests.

So sad not many poeple seems to discover this great article :-(. I recommend wholeheartly everyone who hesitates which approach is better to take some time and read it.

@finnw 2009-03-05 09:12:51

Here's one argument against checked exceptions (from

The reasoning is that I consider exceptions to be no better than "goto's", considered harmful since the 1960s, in that they create an abrupt jump from one point of code to another. In fact they are significantly worse than goto's:

  • They are invisible in the source code. Looking at a block of code, including functions which may or may not throw exceptions, there is no way to see which exceptions might be thrown and from where. This means that even careful code inspection doesn't reveal potential bugs.
  • They create too many possible exit points for a function. To write correct code, you really have to think about every possible code path through your function. Every time you call a function that can raise an exception and don't catch it on the spot, you create opportunities for surprise bugs caused by functions that terminated abruptly, leaving data in an inconsistent state, or other code paths that you didn't think about.

@MarkJ 2009-03-05 09:20:48

+1 You might want to summarize the argument in your answer though? They are like invisible gotos and early exits for your routines, scattered throughout the program.

@Ionuț G. Stan 2009-03-05 09:36:55

That's more an argument against Exceptions in general.

@Newtopian 2009-08-07 16:55:43

have you actually read the article !! Firstly he talks about exceptions in general, secondly the section "They are invisible in the source code" applies specifically to UNCHECKED exception. This is the whole point of checked exception... so that you KNOW what code throws what where

@DNA 2012-08-01 08:33:20

Part of the argument against checked exceptions is that actually you don't know what is thrown where. Yes, you know that a method might throw its declared checked exceptions (although there are many annoying cases where an exception is declared even though you know that particular implementation can never throw that exception)... and, it could throw any unchecked exception. Focusing on the former tends to make developers neglect the latter.

@Eva 2013-03-06 18:24:59

Would people quit with the "this feature is a goto in disguise"! If statements are a form of goto, loops are a form of goto. The problem with gotos is that they're too powerful and not specific enough. You can use goto everywhere, which makes it difficult to know when to stop. When you have a "goto" construct like exceptions, break statements, continue, etc., you can tell exactly what it's being used for.

@finnw 2013-03-07 00:45:19

@Eva They are not the same. With a goto statement you can see the goto keyword. With a loop you can see the closing brace or the break or continue keyword. All of them jump to a point in the current method. But you cannot always see the throw, because often it is not in the current method but in another method that it calls (possibly indirectly.)

@Eva 2013-03-07 01:15:25

@finnw Functions are themselves a form of goto. You usually don't know what functions the functions you're calling are calling. If you programmed without functions, you wouldn't have a problem with invisible exceptions. Which means that the problem is not specifically tied to exceptions, and is not a valid argument against exceptions in general. You could say error codes are faster, you could say monads are cleaner, but the goto argument is silly.

@Holger 2018-01-25 15:25:40

@Eva actually, error codes are slower, as they need repeated checks after each operation that could fail, including all levels of delegation, whereas an exception can skip over these call chains directly to the handler, while the ordinary code flow is not cluttered with conditionals. In languages where exceptions record stack traces, they are usually slower, but only when an exception is created.

@Eugene 2018-01-25 20:06:57

@Holger... or create them without stacktraces at all?

@Holger 2018-01-26 08:35:19

@Eugene well, when you disable stack traces, exceptions indeed become really fast, but I would still recommend a coding style where exceptions stay the exception, hence, their creation costs are irrelevant anyway.

@Eugene 2018-01-26 09:22:53

@Holger right, but my understating is that the context is goto vs exceptions here, if so why would I need stack traces?

@Holger 2018-01-26 09:36:35

@Eugene not exactly. I was just referring to the “error codes vs exceptions” performance comparison. So in both cases we have a normal code flow, in which using exceptions is faster and the erroneous case, in which case exceptions are slower when they record stack traces, which shouldn’t be a problem. If you want to abuse exceptions as some kind of goto, disabling traces would help the performance; I once hotfixed some code of this kind by disabling stack trace for that particular exception, but at some later time I rewrote the entire code to not abuse exceptions, which is even better (to me)…

@Jacob Toronto 2012-08-02 16:54:02

We've seen some references to C#'s chief architect.

Here's an alternate point of view from a Java guy about when to use checked exceptions. He acknowledges many of the negatives others have mentioned: Effective Exceptions

@supercat 2012-08-02 18:33:52

The problem with checked exceptions in Java stems from a deeper problem, which is that way too much information is encapsulated in the TYPE of the exception, rather than in properties of an instance. It would be useful to have checked exceptions, if being "checked" was an attribute of throw/catch sites, and if one could declaratively specify whether a checked exception which escapes a block of code should be remain as a checked exception, or be seen by any enclosing block as an unchecked exception; likewise catch blocks should be able to specify that they only want checked exceptions.

@supercat 2012-08-02 18:38:03

Suppose a dictionary-lookup routine is specified to throw some particular type of exception if an attempt is made to access a non-existent key. It may be reasonable for client code to catch such an exception. If, however, some method used by the lookup routine happens to throw that same type of exception in a manner the lookup routine doesn't expect, the client code probably shouldn't catch it. Having checked-ness be a property of exception instances, throw sites, and catch sites, would avoid such issues. The client would catch 'checked' exceptions of that type, dodging unexpected ones.

@Dave Elton 2012-07-04 13:21:47

To attempt to address just the unanswered question:

If you throw RuntimeException subclasses instead of Exception subclasses then how do you know what you are supposed to catch?

The question contains specious reasoning IMHO. Just because the API tells you what it throws doesn't mean you deal with it in the same way in all cases. To put it another way, the exceptions you need to catch vary depending on the context in which you use the component throwing the exception.

For example:

If I'm writing a connection tester for a database, or something to check the validity of a user entered XPath, then I'd probably want to catch and report on all checked and unchecked exceptions that are thrown by the operation.

If, however, I am writing a processing engine, I will likely treat an XPathException (checked) in the same way as an NPE: I would let it run up to the top of the worker thread, skip the rest of that batch, log the issue (or send it to a support department for diagnosis) and leave feedback for the user to contact support.

@Thomas W 2014-06-02 03:05:10

Exactly. Easy and straightforward, the way exception-handling be. As Dave says, correct exception-handling is normally done at a high level. "Throw early, catch late" is the principle. Checked exceptions make that difficult.

@Esko Luontola 2009-03-05 12:56:54

The article Effective Java Exceptions explains nicely when to use unchecked and when to use checked exceptions. Here are some quotes from that article to highlight the main points:

Contingency: An expected condition demanding an alternative response from a method that can be expressed in terms of the method's intended purpose. The caller of the method expects these kinds of conditions and has a strategy for coping with them.

Fault: An unplanned condition that prevents a method from achieving its intended purpose that cannot be described without reference to the method's internal implementation.

(SO doesn't allow tables, so you might want to read the following from the original page...)


  • Is considered to be: A part of the design
  • Is expected to happen: Regularly but rarely
  • Who cares about it: The upstream code that invokes the method
  • Examples: Alternative return modes
  • Best Mapping: A checked exception


  • Is considered to be: A nasty surprise
  • Is expected to happen: Never
  • Who cares about it: The people who need to fix the problem
  • Examples: Programming bugs, hardware malfunctions, configuration mistakes, missing files, unavailable servers
  • Best Mapping: An unchecked exception

@TofuBeer 2009-03-05 15:45:38

I know when to use them, I want to know why people who don't follow that advice... don't follow that advice :-)

@ceving 2013-03-12 14:50:03

What are programming bugs and how to distinguish them from usage bugs? Is it a programming bug if the user passes the wrong arguments to the program? From the Java point of view it might be no programming bug but from the shell script point of view it is a programming bug. So what are invalid arguments in args[]? Are they a Contingency or a Fault?

@Thomas W 2014-06-02 02:21:43

@TofuBeer -- Because the Java library designers, chose to put all kinds of unrecoverable low-level failures as checked exceptions when they clearly should have been unchecked. FileNotFound is the only IOException which should be checked, for example. With regard to JDBC -- only connecting to the database, can reasonably be considered a contingency. All other SQLExceptions should have been failures and unchecked. Error handling should correctly be at the "business" or "request" level -- see the "throw early, catch late" best practice. Checked exceptions are a barrier to that.

@Matteo Mosca 2014-12-16 16:15:48

There is a single huge flaw in your argument. "Contingency" must NOT be handled through exceptions, but through business code and method return values. Exceptions are for, as the word says, EXCEPTIONAL situations, therefore Faults.

@maaartinus 2017-12-02 15:12:18

@MatteoMosca Error return codes tend to get ignored and that's enough to disqualify them. Actually, anything unusual can oftentimes be only handled somewhere up in the stack and that's a use case for exceptions. I could imagine something like File#openInputStream returning Either<InputStream, Problem> - if that's what you mean, then we may agree.

@Matteo Mosca 2017-12-03 15:27:12

@maaartinus That's exactly what I meant.

@Joshua 2009-11-07 20:34:38

My writeup on is still mostly unchanged from its original form: CheckedExceptionsAreIncompatibleWithVisitorPattern

In summary:

Visitor Pattern and its relatives are a class of interfaces where the indirect caller and interface implementation both know about an exception but the interface and direct caller form a library that cannot know.

The fundamental assumption of CheckedExceptions is all declared exceptions can be thrown from any point that calls a method with that declaration. The VisitorPattern reveals this assumption to be faulty.

The final result of checked exceptions in cases like these is a lot of otherwise useless code that essentially removes the compiler's checked exception constraint at runtime.

As for the underlying problem:

My general idea is the top-level handler needs to interpret the exception and display an appropriate error message. I almost always see either IO exceptions, communication exceptions (for some reason APIs distinguish), or task-fatal errors (program bugs or severe problem on backing server), so this should not be too hard if we allow a stack trace for a severe server problem.

@TofuBeer 2009-11-07 20:46:43

You should have something like DAGNodeException in the interface, then catch the IOException and convert it to a DAGNodeException: public void call(DAGNode arg) throws DAGNodeException;

@Joshua 2009-11-07 22:48:43

@TofuBeer, that 's exactly my point. I find that constantly wrapping and unwrapping exceptions is worse than removing checked exceptions.

@TofuBeer 2009-11-08 01:54:43

Well we disagree completely then... but your article still does not answer the real underlying question of how you stop your application from displaying a stack trace to the user when a runtime exception is thrown.

@Thomas W 2014-06-02 03:01:15

@TofuBeer -- When it fails, telling the user it failed is correct! What's your alternative, other than to "paper over" the failure with 'null' or incomplete/incorrect data? Pretending it succeeded is a lie, that just makes things worse. With 25 years experience in high-reliability systems, retry logic should only be used carefully & where appropriate. I would also expect a Visitor to likely fail again, no matter how many times you retry it. Unless you're flying a plane, swapping to a second version of the same algorithm is impractical & implausible (and may fail anyway).

@Richard Levasseur 2009-03-05 09:40:37

Well, it's not about displaying a stacktrace or silently crashing. It's about being able to communicate errors between layers.

The problem with checked exceptions is they encourage people to swallow important details (namely, the exception class). If you choose not to swallow that detail, then you have to keep adding throws declarations across your whole app. This means 1) that a new exception type will affect lots of function signatures, and 2) you can miss a specific instance of the exception you actually -want- to catch (say you open a secondary file for a function that writes data to a file. The secondary file is optional, so you can ignore its errors, but because the signature throws IOException, it's easy to overlook this).

I'm actually dealing with this situation now in an application. We repackaged almost exceptions as AppSpecificException. This made signatures really clean and we didn't have to worry about exploding throws in signatures.

Of course, now we need to specialize the error handling at the higher levels, implementing retry logic and such. Everything is AppSpecificException, though, so we can't say "If an IOException is thrown, retry" or "If ClassNotFound is thrown, abort completely". We don't have a reliable way of getting to the real exception because things get repackaged again and again as they pass between our code and third-party code.

This is why I'm a big fan of the exception handling in python. You can catch only the things you want and/or can handle. Everything else bubbles up as if you rethrew it yourself (which you have done anyways).

I've found, time and time again, and throughout the project I mentioned, that exception handling falls into 3 categories:

  1. Catch and handle a specific exception. This is to implement retry logic, for example.
  2. Catch and rethrow other exceptions. All that happens here is usually logging, and its usually a trite message like "Unable to open $filename". These are errors you can't do anything about; only a higher levels knows enough to handle it.
  3. Catch everything and display an error message. This is usually at the very root of a dispatcher, and all it does it make sure it can communicate the error to the caller via a non-Exception mechanism (popup dialogue, marshaling an RPC Error object, etc).

@Thorbjørn Ravn Andersen 2009-11-01 08:21:52

You could have made specific subclasses of AppSpecificException to allow separation while keeping the plain method signatures.

@Thorbjørn Ravn Andersen 2009-11-01 08:25:07

Also a very important addition to item 2, is that it allows you to ADD INFORMATION to the exception caught (e.g. by nesting in a RuntimeException). It is much, much better to have the name of the file not found in the stack trace, than hidden deep down in a log file.

@Newtopian 2009-11-08 04:07:52

Basically your argument is "Managing exceptions is tiring so I'd rather not deal with it". As the exception bubbles up it looses meaning and context making is practically useless. As designer of an API you should make is contractually clear as to what can be expected when things go wrong, if my program crashes because I was not informed that this or that exception can "bubbles up" then you, as designer, failed and as a result of your failure my system is not as stable as it can be.

@Richard Levasseur 2009-11-08 06:33:31

Thats not what I'm saying at all. Your last sentence actually agrees with me. If everything is wrapped in AppSpecificException, then it doesn't bubble up (and meaning/context is lost), and, yes, the API client is not being informed - this is exactly what happens with checked exceptions (as they are in java), because people don't want to deal with functions with lots of throws declarations.

@Thomas W 2014-06-02 02:09:46

@Newtopian -- exceptions can largely only be handled at the "business" or "request" level. It makes sense to fail or retry at large granularity, not for every tiny potential failure. For this reason, exception-handling best practice is summarized as "throw early, catch late". Checked exceptions make it harder to manage reliability at the correct level, and encourage vast numbers of mis-coded catch blocks.…

@maaartinus 2017-05-25 03:50:13

You could add a method like hasCause(Class<? extends Exception>... causeClasses) (searching the whole chain) to your AppSpecificException and use it as easily as multiple catch clauses.

@Holger 2018-01-25 15:02:21

@maaartinus or just use a factory method for AppSpecificException that doesn’t create a new instance but returns a cause of the same type, if one exists.

@Bill K 2018-11-21 00:41:16

Your python example is functionally equivalent to unchecked exceptions (If you don't wish to handle them they bubble up to where they can be handled well or at least displayed) and I completely agree--being forced to handle exceptions right at the call point is not preferable which is an excellent answer to the question.

@Newtopian 2009-08-07 17:34:53

Ok... Checked exceptions are not ideal and have some caveat but they do serve a purpose. When creating an API there are specific cases of failures that are contractual of this API. When in the context of a strongly statically typed language such as Java if one does not use checked exceptions then one must rely on ad-hoc documentation and convention to convey the possibility of error. Doing so removes all benefit that the compiler can bring in handling error and you are left completely to the good will of programmers.

So, one removes Checked exception, such as was done in C#, how then can one programmatically and structurally convey the possibility of error ? How to inform the client code that such and such errors can occur and must be dealt with ?

I hear all sorts of horrors when dealing with checked exceptions, they are misused this is certain but so are unchecked exceptions. I say wait a few years when APIs are stacked many layers deep and you will be begging for the return of some kind of structured mean to convey failures.

Take the case when the exception was thrown somewhere at the bottom of the API layers and just bubbled up because nobody knew it was even possible for this error to occur, this even though it was a type of error that was very plausible when the calling code threw it (FileNotFoundException for example as opposed to VogonsTrashingEarthExcept... in which case it would not matter if we handle it or not since there is nothing left to handle it with).

Many have argued that not being able to load the file was almost always the end of the world for the process and it must die a horrible and painful death. So yeah.. sure ... ok.. you build an API for something and it loads file at some point... I as the user of said API can only respond... "Who the hell are you to decide when my program should crash !" Sure Given the choice where exceptions are gobbled up and leave no trace or the EletroFlabbingChunkFluxManifoldChuggingException with a stack trace deeper than the Marianna trench I would take the latter without a cinch of hesitation, but does this mean that it is the desirable way to deal with exception ? Can we not be somewhere in the middle, where the exception would be recast and wrapped each time it traversed into a new level of abstraction so that it actually means something ?

Lastly, most of the argument I see is "I don't want to deal with exceptions, many people do not want to deal with exceptions. Checked exceptions force me to deal with them thus I hate checked exception" To eliminate such mechanism altogether and relegate it to the chasm of goto hell is just silly and lacks jugement and vision.

If we eliminate checked exception we could also eliminate the return type for functions and always return a "anytype" variable... That would make life so much simpler now would it not ?

@supercat 2014-03-14 00:20:04

Checked exceptions would be useful if there were a declarative means of saying none of the method calls within a block are expected to throw some (or any) checked exceptions, and any such exceptions should automatically be wrapped and rethrown. They could be even more useful if calls to methods which were declared as throwing checked exceptions traded off call speed/return for exception-handling speed (so that expected exceptions could be handled almost as fast as normal program flow). Neither situation presently applies, though.

@adrian.tarau 2009-05-18 03:36:06

I've read a lot about exception handling, even if (most of the time) I cannot really say I'm happy or sad about the existence of checked exceptions this is my take : checked exceptions in low-level code(IO, networking, OS, etc) and unchecked exceptions in high-level APIs/application level.

Even if there is not so easy to draw a line between them, I find that it is really annoying/difficult to integrate several APIs/libraries under the same roof without wrapping all the time lots of checked exceptions but on the other hand, sometime it is useful/better to be forced to catch some exception and provide a different one which makes more sense in the current context.

The project I'm working on takes lots of libraries and integrates them under the same API, API which is completely based on unchecked exceptions.This frameworks provides a high-level API which in the beginning was full of checked exceptions and had only several unchecked exceptions(Initialization Exception, ConfigurationException, etc) and I must say was not very friendly. Most of the time you had to catch or re-throw exceptions which you don't know how to handle, or you don't even care(not to be confused with you should ignore exceptions), especially on the client side where a single click could throw 10 possible (checked) exceptions.

The current version(3rd one) uses only unchecked exceptions, and it has a global exception handler which is responsible to handle anything uncaught. The API provides a way to register exception handlers, which will decide if an exception is considered an error(most of the time this is the case) which means log & notify somebody, or it can mean something else - like this exception, AbortException, which means break the current execution thread and don't log any error 'cause it is desired not to. Of course, in order to work out all custom thread must handle the run() method with a try {...} catch(all).

public void run() {

try {
     ... do something ...
} catch (Throwable throwable) {
     ApplicationContext.getExceptionService().handleException("Handle this exception", throwable);


This is not necessary if you use the WorkerService to schedule jobs(Runnable, Callable, Worker), which handles everything for you.

Of course this is just my opinion, and it might not be the right one, but it looks like a good approach to me. I will see after I will release the project if what I think it is good for me, it is good for others too... :)

@Powerlord 2009-03-05 17:14:42

A problem with checked exceptions is that exceptions are often attached to methods of an interface if even one implementation of that interface uses it.

Another problem with checked exceptions is that they tend to be misused. The perfect example of this is in java.sql.Connection's close() method. It can throw a SQLException, even though you've already explicitly stated that you're done with the Connection. What information could close() possibly convey that you'd care about?

Usually, when I close() a connection*, it looks something like this:

try {
} catch (SQLException ex) {
    // Do nothing

Also, don't get me started on the various parse methods and NumberFormatException... .NET's TryParse, which doesn't throw exceptions, is so much easier to use it's painful to have to go back to Java (we use both Java and C# where I work).

*As an additional comment, a PooledConnection's Connection.close() doesn't even close a connection, but you still have to catch the SQLException due to it being a checked exception.

@Powerlord 2009-03-05 17:52:52

Right, any of the drivers can... the question is rather "why should the programmer care?" as he's done accessing the database anyway. The docs even warn you that you should always commit() or rollback() the current transaction before calling close().

@TofuBeer 2009-03-05 21:50:09

Many people think that close on a file cannot throw an exception...… are you 100% certain that there are no cases that it would matter?

@Martin 2009-05-17 20:06:56

I'm 100% certain that there are no cases that it would matter and that the caller wouldn't put in a try/catch.

@Piotr Sobczyk 2011-10-29 09:33:44

Excellent example with closing connections, Martin! I can only rephrase you: If we just explicitly stated that we're done with a connection why should be bother what's going on when we're closig it. There more cases like this that programmer doesn't really care if exception occurs and he is absolutely right about it.

@supercat 2014-03-14 00:21:58

@PiotrSobczyk: Some SQL drivers will squawk if one closes a connection after starting a transaction but neither confirming it nor rolling it back. IMHO, squawking is better than silently ignoring the problem, at least in cases where squawking won't cause other exceptions to get lost.

@cletus 2009-03-05 11:44:29

Rather than rehash all the (many) reasons against checked exceptions, I'll pick just one. I've lost count of the number of times I've written this block of code:

try {
  // do stuff
} catch (AnnoyingcheckedException e) {
  throw new RuntimeException(e);

99% of the time I can't do anything about it. Finally blocks do any necessary cleanup (or at least they should).

I've also lost count of the number of times I've seen this:

try {
  // do stuff
} catch (AnnoyingCheckedException e) {
  // do nothing

Why? Because someone had to deal with it and was lazy. Was it wrong? Sure. Does it happen? Absolutely. What if this were an unchecked exception instead? The app would've just died (which is preferable to swallowing an exception).

And then we have infuriating code that uses exceptions as a form of flow control, like java.text.Format does. Bzzzt. Wrong. A user putting "abc" into a number field on a form is not an exception.

Ok, i guess that was three reasons.

@Mister Smith 2011-08-23 06:22:48

But if an exception is properly catched, you can inform the user, do other tasks (log?) and exit the application in a controlled way. I agree that some API parts could have been designed better. And for the lazy programmer reason, well, I think as a programmer you are 100% responsible of your code.

@Thorbjørn Ravn Andersen 2012-10-29 22:34:49

note that the try-catch-rethrow allows you to specify a message - I usually use it to add information about the contents of state variables. A frequent example is for IOExceptions to add the absolutePathName() of the file in question.

@supercat 2013-01-24 23:34:35

I think you identified the biggest problem with checked exceptions; if foo calls bar, and bar might unexpectedly throw a wazooException foo isn't prepared to handle, there should be an easy way for foo to simply declare that it isn't prepared to handle a wazooException from bar. Passing it up via throws is the wrong approach, since the caller won't be able to distinguish between a wazooException thrown by foo, for reasons foo was anticipating, and a wazooException thrown by bar for reasons foo was not expecting.

@Syed Aqeel Ashiq 2013-09-24 08:37:52

I like your third reason(was it a reason against checked exceptions really? anyways I liked it). But to the lazy programmer reason, I'l definitely kick out such a programmer from my team.

@artbristol 2013-11-08 11:10:39

I think IDEs such as Eclipse have a lot to blame for the number of times you've seen the empty catch block. Really, they should rethrow by default.

@AxiomaticNexus 2014-06-25 21:56:35

"99% of the time I can't do anything about it" -- wrong, you can show the user a message saying "Could not connect to the server" or "The IO device failed", instead of just letting the app crash due to a little network hiccup. Both of your examples are arts of work from bad programmers. You should be attacking the bad programmers and not checked exceptions themselves. It's like me attacking insulin for not helping with my diabetes when I use it as salad dressing.

@MasterMastic 2015-08-25 20:07:49

@YasmaniLlanes You cannot always do these things. Sometimes you have an interface to adhere to. And this is especially true when you design good maintainable APIs because you can't just start throwing side-effects all over the place. Both that, and the complexity it will introduce, will bite you severely on a large scale. So yes, 99% of the time, there's nothing to be done about it.

@AxiomaticNexus 2015-08-25 20:57:04

@MasterMastic Why would the simple act of implementing an interface prevent you from alerting the user when a network connection is lost or a file failed to load?

@MasterMastic 2015-08-25 21:53:12

@YasmaniLlanes Well, forgive and correct me if I'm wrong please (I'm not very familiar with Java), but if the interface doesn't expect the exception, well, what am I to do as an implementer? & how will I alert the user? do I have to carry my error-logging interface with me to every object that could fail? & what then? how do I exit the procedure? or maybe I should just exit like others said? well those are all horrible practices, aren't they? modularity is dead, complexity is sad, and if I just quit the application what happens to all my acquired resources (that aren't managed by the OS)?.

@AxiomaticNexus 2015-08-25 23:44:21

@MasterMastic You're correct that if an interface does not declare a method to throw a checked exception, its implementation cannot either. In the rare situation that a specific implementation of an interface runs into a checked exception, then it is the responsibility of that specific implementation to handle it, after all, the calling code to the interface is not expecting this exception, it doesn't make sense to slap them in the face with one. Ideally you would return an appropriate result, or you can always wrap the checked exception in a non-checked one and throw that instead.

@MasterMastic 2015-08-26 00:32:01

@YasmaniLlanes I haven't found this to be rare at all. And I don't think the interface should predict all exceptions. If you interface a service that gets a arbitrary string, an implementer can do so by reading from static memory, or get it from a local file, or network, or remote database, and endless possibilities exist. I'm sure you don't think the interface should predict all possible (infinite) exceptions. So I don't think it would be unreasonable to slap on exceptions. It's far from ideal, definitely, but ugh, it's not news that exceptions are a horrible mechanism.

@MasterMastic 2015-08-26 00:32:04

And yes, I really do end up throwing a RuntimeException to get around checked exceptions (which I argue are bad here). You say "appropriate result" but in my experience it's usually impossible (at least to us who believe null is by no means appropriate). Thank you very much for your response.

@AxiomaticNexus 2015-08-26 02:52:09

@MasterMastic It depends on what the interface is declaring. If the interface is declaring something like "loadStageFile()" then an IOException is a given; the interface should declare it. If the interface is declaring something like "calculatePiDigit()" any exception that may happen in there is the implementation's problem. If your implementation for whatever reason calculates Pi from a file, then it is your job to catch IOExceptions, in which case you would probably want to wrap it in a RuntimeException.

@AxiomaticNexus 2015-08-26 02:57:26

@MasterMastic Keep in mind that these cases with interfaces are not even a show stopper. Checked exceptions are not taking anything away from you feature-wise. You are always free to use RuntimeExceptions if you want, but the common wisdom that this IOException should always be handled is still there, Java just makes sure that you stick to that common wisdom.

@maaartinus 2017-12-02 14:22:44

@AxiomaticNexus "a message ... instead of just letting the app crash". That's always an option, but this happens typically some 10-20 stack frames higher, which all get polluted by the checked exception. And usually, writing just catch Exception somewhere close to top frame is much better as this way you can be sure you miss nothing. Obviously, you can and usually should differentiate according to the exact exception class, but that's nothing you'd need checked exceptions for. Actually, they make things worse as you're oftentimes forced to wrap them and then inspect the cause instead.

@AxiomaticNexus 2017-12-04 18:23:50

@maaartinus I would hardly call pollution adding two words: "throws XyzException" to the signature of any method up the stack that, you know... throws XyzException. The benefits (ensuring you handle exceptions properly) far outweigh the costs (adding two words to the method signature).

@Mohan 2017-12-21 04:20:36

@cletus What do you think java.text.Format ought to do instead of throwing an Exception?

@Holger 2018-01-25 14:54:05

@Mohan: the Format example is hilarious, as directly above the throwing method, there is the method parseObject(String source, ParsePosition pos) which does not throw but return null on wrong input and updates the position object accordingly. The programmer has the choice.

@David Lichteblau 2009-03-05 10:40:04

In short:

Exceptions are an API design question. -- No more, no less.

The argument for checked exceptions:

To understand why checked exceptions might not be good thing, let's turn the question around and ask: When or why are checked exceptions attractive, i.e. why would you want the compiler to enforce declaration of exceptions?

The answer is obvious: Sometimes you need to catch an exception, and that is only possible if the code being called offers a specific exception class for the error that you are interested in.

Hence, the argument for checked exceptions is that the compiler forces programmers to declare which exceptions are thrown, and hopefully the programmer will then also document specific exception classes and the errors that cause them.

In reality though, ever too often a package com.acme only throws an AcmeException rather than specific subclasses. Callers then need to handle, declare, or re-signal AcmeExceptions, but still cannot be certain whether an AcmeFileNotFoundError happened or an AcmePermissionDeniedError.

So if you're only interested in an AcmeFileNotFoundError, the solution is to file a feature request with the ACME programmers and tell them to implement, declare, and document that subclass of AcmeException.

So why bother?

Hence, even with checked exceptions, the compiler cannot force programmers to throw useful exceptions. It is still just a question of the API's quality.

As a result, languages without checked exceptions usually do not fare much worse. Programmers might be tempted to throw unspecific instances of a general Error class rather than an AcmeException, but if they care at all about their API quality, they will learn to introduce an AcmeFileNotFoundError after all.

Overall, the specification and documentation of exceptions is not much different from the specification and documentation of, say, ordinary methods. Those, too, are an API design question, and if a programmer forgot to implement or export a useful feature, the API needs to be improved so that you can work with it usefully.

If you follow this line of reasoning, it should be obvious that the "hassle" of declaring, catching, and re-throwing of exceptions that is so common in languages like Java often adds little value.

It is also worth noting that the Java VM does not have checked exceptions -- only the Java compiler checks them, and class files with changed exception declarations are compatible at run time. Java VM security is not improved by checked exceptions, only coding style.

@Eva 2013-02-28 16:27:20

Your argument argues against itself. If "sometimes you need to catch an exception" and API quality is often poor, without checked exceptions you won't know whether the designer neglected to document that a certain method throws an exception that needs to be caught. Couple that with throwing AcmeException rather than AcmeFileNotFoundError and good luck figuring out what you did wrong and where you need to catch it. Checked exceptions provide programmers a modicum of protection against bad API design.

@Thomas W 2014-06-02 02:14:45

Java library design made serious mistakes. 'Checked exceptions' were for predictable & recoverable contingencies -- such as file not found, failure to connect. They were never meant or suited for low-level systemic failure. It would have been fine to force opening a file to be checked, but there is no sensible retry or recovery for failure to write a single byte/ execute a SQL query etc. Retry or recovery are correctly handled at the "business" or "request" level, which checked exceptions make pointlessly difficult.…

@Le Dude 2009-03-05 10:34:58

Artima published an interview with one of the architects of .NET, Anders Hejlsberg, which acutely covers the arguments against checked exceptions. A short taster:

The throws clause, at least the way it's implemented in Java, doesn't necessarily force you to handle the exceptions, but if you don't handle them, it forces you to acknowledge precisely which exceptions might pass through. It requires you to either catch declared exceptions or put them in your own throws clause. To work around this requirement, people do ridiculous things. For example, they decorate every method with, "throws Exception." That just completely defeats the feature, and you just made the programmer write more gobbledy gunk. That doesn't help anybody.

@Trap 2009-03-05 12:11:04

In fact, the chief architect.

@TofuBeer 2009-03-05 15:11:21

I have read that, to me his argument boils down to "there are bad programmers out there".

@Dan Rosenstark 2009-05-27 12:19:48

TofuBeer, not at all. The whole point is that many times you don't know what to do with the Exception that the called method throws, and the case you're really interested in isn't even mentioned. You open a file, you get an IO Exception, for instance... that's not my problem, so I throw it up. But the top-level calling method will just want to stop processing and inform the user that there's an unknown problem. The checked Exception didn't help at all. It was one of a million strange things that can happen.

@Thorbjørn Ravn Andersen 2009-11-01 09:32:10

@yar, if you don't like the checked exception, then do a "throw new RuntimeException("we did not expect this when doing", e)" and be done with it.

@Phil 2010-05-03 00:23:43

TofuBeer, I think his real argument is that there are humans out there. And that on the whole, it's not convincing that the pain incurred using checked exceptions is less than the pain incurred without them.

@supercat 2012-10-29 20:35:33

@ThorbjørnRavnAndersen: That would be the right approach, but I would posit that such wrapping should occur implicitly if a method neither catches a checked exception nor indicates somehow that it should percolate up the stack as-is (even if Foo, which has a throws WizzleException clause calls Bar which has a matching clause, that should not suffice, since likely as not, Bar's exception won't mean the same thing as Foo's. Boilerplate code to do the thing that should be done in 90% of cases is just noise.

@Thorbjørn Ravn Andersen 2012-10-29 22:05:43

@supercat in my experience, checked exceptions mean that you think about error handling much earlier in the development process. This result in higher quality code (given that errors may be recoverable).

@supercat 2012-10-29 22:20:03

@ThorbjørnRavnAndersen: A fundamental design weakness in Java, which .net unfortunately copied, is that it uses the type of an exception as both the primary means for deciding whether it should be acted upon, and the primary means of indicating the general type of thing that went wrong, when in fact the two issues are largely orthogonal. What matters is not what went wrong, but what state objects are in. Further, both .net and Java assume by default that acting upon and resolving an exception are generally the same thing, when in fact they're often different.

@Thorbjørn Ravn Andersen 2012-10-29 22:28:00

@supercat interesting. Is this elaborated somewhere?

@supercat 2012-10-29 22:35:36

@ThorbjørnRavnAndersen: Not that I know of; it's just my opinion. If one has a method like LoadDocument() and it throws any exception, the caller has to deal with the fact that the document didn't load. If the caller can survive without the document, the next thing the caller needs to know is whether the attempt to load the document had any dangerous side effects that weren't rolled back. And the exception type says nothing about that. If a failed attempt to load a document had no side-effects, informing the user that it couldn't load may be sufficient to handle the exception.

@supercat 2012-10-29 22:37:46

@ThorbjørnRavnAndersen: If the attempt to load the document corrupted a data structure which is shared with other open documents, informing the user of the problem may be appropriate, but the problem should not be considered resolved. Unfortunately, both Java and .net assume that a catch block will resolve just about any exception unless the code manually rethrows it.

@Thorbjørn Ravn Andersen 2012-10-30 00:05:48

@supercat in that case the loadDocument() method has too many responsibilities. The exception should be handled at a much lower level instead of being allowed to interrupt the manipulation of shared data structures. What you describe is simply bad design and not the fault of the exception mechanism.

@AxiomaticNexus 2014-06-25 21:45:05

So he's arguing against bad programmers, not checked exceptions themselves. Not having checked exceptions only makes those bad programmers even worse.

@Chuck Conway 2009-03-05 10:02:53

Anders speaks about the pitfalls of checked exceptions and why he left them out of C# in episode 97 of Software Engineering radio.

@oxbow_lakes 2009-03-05 10:00:40

I think that this is an excellent question and not at all argumentative. I think that 3rd party libraries should (in general) throw unchecked exceptions. This means that you can isolate your dependencies on the library (i.e. you don't have to either re-throw their exceptions or throw Exception - usually bad practice). Spring's DAO layer is an excellent example of this.

On the other hand, exceptions from the core Java API should in general be checked if they could ever be handled. Take FileNotFoundException or (my favourite) InterruptedException. These conditions should almost always be handled specifically (i.e. your reaction to an InterruptedException is not the same as your reaction to an IllegalArgumentException). The fact that your exceptions are checked forces developers to think about whether a condition is handle-able or not. (That said, I've rarely seen InterruptedException handled properly!)

One more thing - a RuntimeException is not always "where a developer got something wrong". An illegal argument exception is thrown when you try and create an enum using valueOf and there's no enum of that name. This is not necessarily a mistake by the developer!

@AxiomaticNexus 2014-06-25 21:41:35

Yes, it is a mistake by the developer. They clearly didn't use the right name, so they have to go back and fix their code.

@maaartinus 2017-12-02 15:54:07

@AxiomaticNexus No sane developer uses enum member names, simply because they use enum objects instead. So a wrong name only can come from the outside, be it an import file or whatever. One possible way to dealing with such names is calling MyEnum#valueOf and catching the IAE. Another way is to use a pre-filled Map<String, MyEnum>, but these are implementation details.

@AxiomaticNexus 2017-12-04 18:52:23

@maaartinus There are cases where enum member names are used without the string coming from outside. For example, when you want to loop through all the members dynamically to do something with each. Furthermore, whether the string comes from outside or not is irrelevant. The developer has all the information they need, to know whether passing x string to "MyEnum#valueOf" will result in an error before passing it. Passing x string to "MyEnum#valueOf" anyway when it would have caused error, would clearly be a mistake on the developer's part.

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